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31st December 1915
30th December 1915
29th December 1915
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31st December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Aside from a large article on page 11 on “Home Politics in 1915” by J. B. Firth, one of the few writers whose work would appear in the Daily Telegraph in both world wars, there was little to hint at the passing of the old year in the New Year’s Eve edition. As 1916 loomed it was the subject of conscription, or compulsion as it was termed here, that led the news, as the Labour movement had a conference to debate its threat, but no member of the Cabinet had resigned over the issue – page 9. French reaction to the announcement appears on page 11. On a similar theme, “Middle Class”’s letter the previous day on national organisation was evincing great interest (also page 9). Also in today’s paper: - Much of page 7 is given over to action on the French part of the front, with their official account of the Battle of Champagne and the latest despatch from H. Warner Allen - King George V’s request for attested men to wear an armlet bears immediate fruit in London – page 7 - G. Ward Price’s official despatch concerning the evacuation of Anzac and Suvla commences on page 9. Despite there being longer articles before in the paper, the decision is taken in this case to split it in two and finish it the following day - A French landing on a Greek island brings a protest from Athens – page 9. Meanwhile G. J. Stevens writes from there on page 10 on how German agents are preparing the way for Bulgaria to invade the country - The Telegraph can’t get enough of the experiences of British people in overrun Serbia – another report about this appears on page 11

30th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph. With 1915 approaching its end the paper was starting to look back on the year, with Archibald Hurd reviewing the British fleet’s activities on page 7 and the Labour Correspondent writing about that field on page 10, although he was oddly reticent about referring to the strikes over the past year, limiting him to observations that some works were not outputting to capacity. Closer in time, one of the leaders on page 8 harked back to Christmas and how the celebrations impacted on children.
Looking forward, conscription appeared to be on the cards for single men, as around 600,000 had failed to attest under Lord Derby’s scheme (page 9). For those who had done so, King George V expressed his hope they would wear an armlet as proof of this, which the paper thought worthy of the banner headline (same page).
Also in today’s paper:
- In the courts a workman falls foul of the law for returning to finish a drink he was unable to wholly consume in the legally prescribed time due to being called away to the telephone, and a Northumberland farmer is prosecuted for shooting a carol singer – page 3
- The licensing restrictions are such that New Year’s Eve in London is expected to be celebrated with less “whole-hearted gaiety,” the authorities having refused an extension for that night – page 4 - A correspondent signing himself “Middle Class” writes a lengthy letter on pages 9 and 10 calling for better organisation of the country’s human resources to serve the war effort

29th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: A very quiet day newswise today, so straight to the digest: - The correspondence concerning the serious shortage of medical men caused by the needs of the army comes on a close on page 9, with a leader on the subject on page 6 - A French liner is sunk by an Austrian submarine, whose crew jeer the survivors – page 7 - More on the havoc caused by the weather reported the previous day on page 7 - Gabriele d’Annunzio writes of his mine-laying adventures on page 8 - Germans shoot a Christmas pudding waved above a British trench – page 8 - A report on page 8 from British headquarters claims those sceptical that official reports are telling the truth would be convinced of their accuracy if they came out to the front. Well it would say that, wouldn’t it? It also relays the necessity for more military bands to provides stimulus

28th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: - All of page 4 and part of page 5 is given over to reviews of pantomimes around London - “Fox hunting has by no means completely emerged from the crisis which overtook it in the early months of the war” observes an article on the field sport’s 1915/16 season so far on page 5 - The French War Office publishes contents of letters found on German prisoners which indicate a “hankering for peace” and naturally tries to infer that this is a nationally-held sentiment as a result – page 5 - The India Office announces a defeat for the Turks in Mesopotamia on page 7. Also on an Indian theme on that page, the Prince of Wales communicates a farewell message from his father to the Indian Army Corps commending them prior to their departure from France, news of which had been somewhat scarce prior to this - Two provinces secede in China as what Our Special Correspondent describes as a “remarkable situation” sees the country slides further towards anarchy – page 7 - A dashing cavalry exploit by Russian Cossacks is relayed from Petrograd – page 7, whilst Bernard Pares in a delayed report writes about “sporting with fate on the Russian front” on page 9 - A violent gale sweeps Britain, and there are also floods to contend with – pages 7 and 8 - G. Ward Price’s latest despatch from the Dardanelles on page 9 has been rather overtaken by the announcement a week earlier of the withdrawal

27th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: It was hardly surprising that how Christmas 1915 was celebrated should dominate today’s paper. On the main news page (page 7) Philip Gibbs reports on Christmas in the trenches alongside to King George V’s Christmas greetings to his servicemen, which naturally the paper Is quick to praise in a leader on page 6. On page 4 are a number of reports on what happened back at home, predominantly in London, a report on Amsterdam on page 9 claims it was “the saddest Yuletide on record” in Berlin, whilst reports from foreign capitals on page 5 give an impression that the fighting hasn’t stopped for Christmas, once you realise anything dated Saturday is being reported on Christmas Day itself. David Lloyd George didn’t stop either, addressing a large meeting of trade unionists in Glasgow on that day (pages 7 and 8). However, given there was no paper printed that day a leader on how Boxing Day should be celebrated in wartime on page 6 does seem a tad belated. Also in today’s paper - His campaign may be over but Lord Derby is still busy with administration of his recruiting system, with “much useful information” issued on page 5 - A report from an American journalist on the Serbian retreat gets reprinted on page 8, in an article emotively titled “A People’s Agony.” Poland isn’t faring much better, according to Bernard Pares on page 10 - Constantinople is “ore squalid than ever” and subject to German tyranny, clams A. Beaumont in Milan on page 8 - Henry Ford’s “peace ark” is “a veritable fiasco” according to the Scandinavian press on page 9

24th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: “Christmas, which in olden time came to us with a message of bountifulness and good cheer, must change its mood and bring home to our hearts different moral. We must not waste, we must not spend beyond proper and inevitable limits; we must realise how tremendous is the task before us, how crushingly huge is the warfare to which we are committed. Every man can help only so far as he realises the supreme duty of sacrifice.” The Telegraph’s Christmas leader, found on page 6, made no bones about how the festival was occurring at a time of stress for the nation, but did rather tangle itself in knots over how it should be celebrated. After all, after this sober passage it goes on so say “There is, however, another and a happier duty which is required of us at a season like this. There is no virtue in a gloomy face; nor is any particular strength to be derived from merely melancholy thoughts. We must teach ourselves the lesson of hopefulness and cheerfulness quite as much as the lesson of economy. It is an easy point of criticism to urge that the most foolish attitude to the war is one of groundless optimism, and that it is wiser and better to know the worst. Everyone must acknowledge, of course, that it is mere stupidity to rejoice when there is no occasion for rejoicing. But of the two extreme moods we fancy that pessimism is the worst – the most enfeebling, the most debilitating of all mental states.” However, it then goes to sober the mood again, which could well make readers a bit confused as to what they should be doing the following day, except perhaps go to Church, as it stressed the religious side of the season. Meanwhile on page 7 Philip Gibbs gives an up-to-date article on “Christmas in British Trenches,” which accentuates the positive side to back up the middle section of the leader. Also in today’s paper - Another report of a record mailbag of Christmas mail to soldiers at the front on page 5 - Page 6 has a festive wartime poem entitled “London chimes” - Speculation that the Austrians are readying an attack into Greece on page 7 - Official casualty figure for the Dardanelles campaign reveal that the number is over 112,000 – page 7 - Details of the sinking of a Japanese liner in the Mediterranean stage that all on board were saved, which is impressive given that no warning was given by the submarine that sank it – page 7 - Sir John French gets an enthusiastic send-off from the soldiers in France, reports Philip Gibbs on page 7 - Dramatic evidence is given in a court case concerning a Lieutenant being tried for the murder of a Canadian sergeant on page 8 - An artist described as the “Last Pre-Raphaelite painter” has an obituary on page 8 - A Christmas manifesto by German Socialists refers to “blood-stained monarchs” and says “the Kaiser must fall” – page 9 - An article on page 9 waxes lyrical about the new soldiers’ buffet at London Waterloo

23rd December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: The day before Christmas Eve and the season is really making its presence felt in the paper. Page 11 has an article entitled “Soldiers’ Christmas” adjoining a Christmas plea on behalf of sick children, whilst “A Londoner” writes on page 7 on “Christmas in hospital.” Meanwhile with the number of men already on service it is hardly a surprise to see a “huge Christmas bag” of mail sent to them being announced on page 9. Add in a report on wounded soldiers being treated to a Christmas party at the Law Courts on page 3 and the less happy news that London dairymen have to abandon the tradition of a complimentary Christmas pot of cream to their customers, due to supply problems on page 4 and certainly a number of facets of the season are being reported upon. No speculation though as to any repetition of the famous truce of a year earlier though, somewhat curiously. Also in today’s paper - Radicals and Nationalists attempt to filibuster the Commons vote on granting a million more men to the army, leading to a sitting ending with a vote at 5.30am – page 6. - The clergy and military service letter debate comes to a close on page 7, but a leader on page 8 makes plain the Telegraph’s view on the matter - Assorted bankers produced a manifesto concerning the nation’s needs and the duty of all to fulfil them – pages 9 and 10 - More on the heroism of British nurses in the evacuation of Serbia on page 10 today

22d December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Whilst the House of Commons was voting on adding another million men to the British Army, and Herbert Asquith revealed that “in certain parts of the country young unmarried men had not responded as it was hoped they would respond,” to the recent recruitment scheme, thus causing the spectre of compulsion to rear its head again, H. Warner Allen reported from France that he believed there had been 4,500,000 German casualties, two-thirds of which amounted to “permanent wastage” on the German side so far in the war. Never mind German figures didn’t back this estimation, they are of courser a pack of lies. With the Allies not appearing to have suffered much in their Dardanelles withdrawal – Asquith stating the casualties amounted to a mere 3 wounded – no wonder if the American press saw articles like these on page 9 it would conclude, as in the case of an “impartial” report in the New York Tribune reported on page 10, that the Germans are “already defeated.” Also in today’s paper - The Press Bureau issues details as to how the system of appeals for postponement of service under the group system of enlistment will work – page 7 - A plea by a German to President Woodrow Wilson for food shipments to aid German babies gets short shrift from our New York correspondent on page 7 - The Germans make another gas attack on the British front, but British Headquarters dismisses it as a complete failure – page 8

21st December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph:“All the troops at Suvla and Anzac, together with their goods and stores, have been successfully transferred, with insignificant casualties, to another sphere of operation.” Despite all the stories there had been since the Gallipoli landings suggesting advances had been made, the reality was somewhat different, but despite the efforts of Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett to hint at the truth, the censor had managed to camouflage this. However, the leakage of the news that Lord Kitchener had gone there himself after the new commander, Sir Charles Munro, had recommended withdrawal suggested that all was not well, and the official announcement above (see page 9) confirmed this. Not that it was actually a full withdrawal from the operations that was being announced, as the War Office went on to claim “by this contraction of front, operations at other points of the line will be more effectively carried out.” And equally naturally, a leader on page 8 sympathised with “one of the most difficult decisions ever imposed by necessity upon British generalship” and praised the soldiers who had fought there, but even it had to accept that as far as most people were concerned the campaign had a tragic waste of life and was best discontinued. Also in today’s paper - An article on page 3 tells of the “Romance of the banana” - There is a major cliff-fall near Dover – page 4. Perhaps surprisingly it isn’t ascribed to some sort of German plot - Hotspur takes time out of reporting on horse racing to report the spending of £12 million on horses and mules by the British Government in the USA, and suspects this is understating the actual amount – page 5 - British hostages in Syria are made to suffer after a cinema in Damascus accidentally shows a film about Australian troops – page 5 - The Greek army is discontented by the lack of action against the Bulgarians and the prospect of potential incursion, and King Constantine is blamed – page 9 - Herbert Asquith announces a postponement of the release of figures concerning Lord Derby’s recruitment scheme, due to the complexity of the task – page 9 - David Lloyd George’s speech on the work of the Ministry of Munitions sees him at times “at his very best” – page 9 - A. Beaumont in Milan hears about the experiences of women of the Third Serbian Relief Fund Unit on page 11 - Rumours mount as to German activity on the Western front – page 11 - The Telegraph’s suggestion of people extending hospitality to lonely soldiers from overseas stranded in London at Christmas generates such a positive response that the YMCA had to open a special department to deal with the subject – page 10. Also on a festive note, 1,000 children of servicemen attend a party at Windsor castle (page 11, with a photograph on page 3) - Ships of the Grand Fleet contribute dolls to a show in Thorpe Bay and they raise over £40 for charity – page 11 - The resorts round-up on page 12 gives an optimistic view of the Christmas season, and an adjacent article gives a London-centric guide to public transport of this

20th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph:  Allied reporters expect Bulgaria to attack Greece – page 9. Greece meanwhile refutes newspaper reports suggesting any lack of faith with the Allies and German corruption of the king, politicians and military men (same page). A leader on page 8 is sceptical about how truthfully she can do this, but takes it as proof of Greece’s return to good faith - Sir John French sends a farewell message to his troops in France – page 9 - The latest foiled German plot in the US is one to blow up the Welland Canal – page 9 - “A quieter or more unostentatious wedding it is hard to imagine” says the report on Woodrow Wilson’s nuptials on page 9 - A lecture on the war suggests the Prince of Wales has been causing military authorities anxiety with his risk-taking – page 9 - “Little time has been lost by the War Office in calling up the first batch of men, who, after being attested under Lord Derby’s scheme, passed into the Reserve,” with the first men affected having to report for duty on January 20 – pages 9 and 10 - An American journalist reports on how German prisoners are treated in England – page 11. No prizes for guessing the report is favourable in tone - Satisfactory supplies of Christmas fruit are reported – page 14

19th December 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 19th December 1915.

18th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Eyes were turning further east than Macedonia today, although page 9 had a number of articles of the diplomatic situation concerning Greece now the Allies were forced back to Salonika, as things seemed to be warming up in Persia. Page 9 also had the news of Russian troops advancing in the country, on the grounds or rumours of a Turco-German advance on India through it. Over on page 10 there was a report of a conspiracy by the Central Powers against the country’s young Shah, which was thwarted by the British and Russians stressing their good intentions and convincing the Shah that the presence of Russian troops in the country was a safeguard to public safety. It surely can’t be coincidence that these two reports appear on the same day, can it? And slightly closer to home on page 11 a correspondent from Petrograd gave a rosy account of the situation for the Russians, as the Eastern Front appeared to be bedding down for a winter of snowstorms and frozen ground, with Russia’s reliable artillery and an abundance of shells highlighted. Also in today’s paper - Margot Asquith sues the Globe newspaper for libel after it accuses her of pro-German sympathies – page 4 - 14 die in a train collision near Newcastle – page 9 - Guglielmo Marconi gives a speech in the Italian Senate expressing some concern over the economic relationship between the UK and Italy since the latter joined the war – page 10 - Entertainments for Christmas are as plentiful as ever, says an article detailing them on page 11. Over on page 12 the women’s page gives suggested Christmas recipes.

17th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: With the Bulgarians halting in what they would see as their pursuit of the Allies, and what the Allies would see as a successful withdrawal, at the Greek frontier, and proposing that a neutral zone of 2km each side of the border be set up, to which the Greeks agreed (page 9), you get the impression the fighting in Europe will now be somewhat in stasis as Christmas approaches – certainly on the Western Front all you get is a reference to “minor operations” and there has been little news of late from the Eastern either. The concern now in the Balkans seemed to be the fate of Salonika and the Allies’ determination, which they believed was in accordance with the wishes of Greece, to prevent the Central Powers any control over that city. Also in today’s paper - A Professor of Commerce in the University of Birmingham gives practical suggestions as to how to save on page 7 - A wine merchant writes a letter on page 7 expressing his annoyance with the new drink regulations, giving examples of what he could be liable for imprisonment for doing which do rather bolster his case - A leader on page 8 heaps praise on the outgoing Sir John French and lionises the incoming Sir Douglas Haig – “a brilliant soldier, and a great staff officer.” For the second day running pictures of the pair appear in the paper, today on page 12 - Italian troops are successfully landed in Albania – page 8 - The Telegraph announces it will not charge for classified advertisements posted by disabled soldiers – page 8 - The French war loan is inevitably announced to be a great success – page 9 - The Austrian reply to the American note is described as taking an “insolent tone.” How often have we seen that phrase? It does seem that any Central Powers response to a diplomatic note is so described thus (page 9). The Americans will be even less pleased by the news on page 10 that two of their bankers were summarily executed in the captured town of Gorizia - The Government may have ruled out cutting parliamentary salaries (see December 14), but the Attorney-General informs the Commons that the Law Officers have agreed to cut their fees during the war, to that house’s “manifest pleasure” – page 9

16th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph:The major news today was the appointment of General Sir Douglas Haig to replace Sir John French as British commander in France and Flanders. It had become clear that French was not the man to lead his men to victory on the Western Front, and it was necessary to replace him. The initial campaign at Mons had shocked him and made him doubt the prospects of success, compounded by the losses suffered by the Regular Army in the early months which he took badly. He had poor relationships with his Generals and by late 1915 was loth to cooperate with his French Allies. His behaviour at Loos, in particular his handling of the reserves and the errors he made about them in his official despatch alienated Haig, who opened a whispering campaign against French which found backing in London, and his fate was sealed. Not that the War Office announcement conveyed on page 9 gave any hint of this, “over sixteen months of severe and incessant strain, Field–Marshal Sir John French has most ably commanded our Armies in France and Flanders, and he has now, at his own request, relinquished his command” it proclaimed. French had been allowed to resign rather than be forcibly replaced, but it was a diplomatic nicety camouflaging the reality of the situation. Nevertheless he was rewarded for his efforts to an extent by being made a Viscount and Commander-in-Chief of the troops stationed in the United Kingdom. Also in today’s paper - France gives figures as to the number of people arrested for espionage in the country since the war began, and the fate of those whose cases have been concluded – page 7 - The Editor of the New Statesman responds to David Lloyd George’s letter the previous day with one of his own on page 8 - The Allies’ retreat from Serbia into Greece is complete. G. J. Stevens in Salonika claims it was achieved with slight losses, and any Bulgarian or German claims otherwise are a “deliberate tissue of lies” – page 9. - “Lord Derby made an important statement in the House of Lords yesterday on the results of the great recruiting campaign” says a report on page 9. Remarkably, he is able to do this despite being “unable to give any figures” about it - The British encounter a “hostile Arab force” in Western Egypt, says a report on page 9 - Six days after the first report of the medical profession’s concern over army call-ups, the matter is returned to in a letter and article on pages 9 and 10 - More of German plots in the US on page 11, including a plan to use bombs made from thermos bottles to blow up Allied shipping, thwarted by the man involved being a double agent - Not quite sure what the pictures of the “Campaign in Mesopotamia” on page 12 actually have to do with it apart from being in the vicinity of it

15th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Not much of note in today’s paper, but some of the more notable stories are: - British sailors pay a visit to the trenches, reports Philip Gibbs on page 8 - David Lloyd George hits back at the New Statesman for claiming he described munitions factory workers as drunkards and shirkers – page 9 - The British forces in East Africa get a new commander in the shape of General Sir Horace Smith Dorrien – page 9, with a photo of the man in question on page 3 - Bulgaria claims “Macedonia is free” but the Allies still claim to be inflicting heavy losses on them in their withdrawal – page 9 - Some relaxation on the sale of alcohol in the afternoon is to be permitted in Christmas week, but there will be some curtailment on the railways during the festive season – both page 10 - A missionary who has returned from Jerusalem reports the Turks under German direction are assembling there for a campaign against Egypt – page 10 - Yet more on Armenian suffering on page 11

14th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph:Although it is well-known how complex the trenching system on the Western Front became, so see stark figures about it at the time still comes as a bit of an eye-opener. A despatch from H. Warner Allen on page 4 brings this to life, after a visit to the French front. The section he visited extended laterally for just over 10 miles, but by the end of the year he reports that the French trenches in that section will run to a total of 280 miles, and this is small beer compared with another section which contains a full 450 miles of them. In total he estimates that the Allies now have at least 10,000 miles of trenches to guard and keep in order, which is an impressive feat of engineering if nothing else, although given the experience of one paymaster and the plague of rats the article goes on to report it clearly can have its downside. Also in today’s paper - Some Australian troops see snow fall for the first time in their lives at Gallipoli – page 4. Below that despatch the Americans report on how the Turks fight like gentlemen - An American deserter is prosecuted for stealing from British soldiers – page 5 - Plucky Allies retiring in the face of overwhelming Bulgarian numbers is still the story coming from Macedonia on page 9 - Britain and Denmark reach an agreement on trade – page 9 - Control over London’s air defences is transferred to the War Office, which raises questions over why gunnery supremo Sir Percy Scott is no longer in charge – page 9 - Herbert Asquith rules out a reduction in Parliamentary salaries to help national retrenchment – page 9. A leader on page 8 expresses the Telegraph’s disapproval of this decision. 

13th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: The whole country will learn with extreme pleasure that Lord Derby’s scheme has been a pronounced success.” Despite a lack of official figures, a report on page 9 said that there was “good ground for the belief” that the scheme had brought in numbers which had “vastly exceeded estimates” and was “a great triumph for the voluntary system of recruiting.” Below this Derby himself thanked the Press for their assistance, and considering the vast amount of coverage the Telegraph had given to this (again there were a number of articles on pages 9 and 10 on what was happening) it was probably well-earned. A picture on page 3 showing massed men in Camberwell heading for the recruiting office added to the positivity generated in today’s paper towards the scheme’s effectiveness. But would it be enough? Mind you, some of the arguments used by recruiters seemed rather odd. An American journalist on page 11 gave an example of a recruiting sergeant saying the Allies would win because whilst the Germans had spent the time since the start of the war trying to win and failing to do so, the Allies had been trying to lose in the same period and couldn’t. Hardly a ringing endorsement of his superiors! Also in today’s paper - A British press correspondent reports on a night-time excursion into No Man’s Land – page 7 - The question on whether clergymen should join the ranks of combatants has ignited quite a dispute among letter-writers to the paper, and page 7 has the latest offerings in this, alongside on of more theological bent on “God, war and the Devil” - The USA sends a formal note to Austria-Hungary over the sinking of the Ancona – page 9 - Political turbulence in China leads to one Yuan-Shi-Kai reportedly becoming the new Emperor – page 9 - Irish soldiers come in for particular praise as the Allies fight their retreat in Macedonia – page 9. Meanwhile the diplomatic situation between the Allies and Greece is reportedly improving (same page)

12th December 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 12th December 1915.

11th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: “The German nation is longing for peace with its whole heart.” A leader on page 8 draws an unlikely-sounding conclusion from the debate in the Reichstag on peace conditions, which apparently arrived too late for the previous day’s paper and thus appears on page 9 today, and goes on to argue that “an intelligent people cannot face with any satisfaction the indefinite continuance of a struggle every additional day of which makes matters worse,” but their deluded rulers are so convinced of victory that they are unable to do the right thing by their countrymen. “Meanwhile our statesmen spare us such enthusiastic assurances of our own invincibility as the Imperial Chancellor still thinks likely to inspirit his now rather pensive countrymen,” it goes on to claim, which would be all well and good, but how many setbacks have been camouflaged so far by the Allies, and how often have we heard statesmen and indeed the Telegraph talk of victory being a foregone conclusion for them? What’s the difference? Indeed, it could be argued that what the Telegraph’s leader has to say about Bethmann-Hollweg and what Bethmann-Hollweg had to say in the Reichstag about the Allies are but two sides of a same coin… Also in today’s paper - “How many of us, I wonder, have given even so much as a thought to Serbia as a musical nation,” writes Robin H. Legge on page 4, a sentiment which could well be equally valid a century on. He does manage to fill the best part of a column on the subject nevertheless - Some modesty from one of the British escapees from Serbia in a letter on page 4, in which he ascribes leadership of his party to somebody else. A. Beaumont in Milan has more tales of the “terrible plight of Serbian fugitives” to tell on page 7 - The superiority in weight of munitions for Britain in the Western Front is described as the triumph of the business man on page 7. A member of the Executive Council of the Amalgamated Society of Tailors and Tailoresses isn’t so happy about the effect of the Government’s munitions policy on his trade in a letter on the same page though - “Severe repulses of Bulgar attacks” comes the latest report from Macedonia on page 9, but the announcement that the French have completed their retirement suggests the Allies are still on the back foot. Not that the French report it that way, claiming that as “the Serbian army for the moment is out of the reckoning, our presence on Serbian territory is no longer necessary” so that is why the retirement took place - Another bumper crop of reports as Lord Derby’s recruitment scheme nears its conclusion on pages 9 and 10 - The women’s page provides advice on Christmas pudding making in straitened times – page 12

10th December 115

In todays Daily Telegraph: Despite the scepticism manifested the previous day in the paper over Bulgarian claims the Allies were forced to admit that they’ve had to fall back in Macedonia (page 9), which rather made a mockery of the Telegraph’s attitude. Nevertheless British headquarters claims there is “no cause for alarm.” Germany was clearly enjoying the Bulgarian success, given the crowing from Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg in a speech in the Reichstag dismissed by the paper as a “boastful oration” (also page 9). Oddly, despite the Reichstag having been reported as debating peace conditions on December 4, and the report concluding with the fact it did so, there is not a mention of what transpired. Greece’s refusal to get involved caused the Telegraph to apportion part of the blame of this Allied reverse to that country in a leader on page 8, and France showed her annoyance by blocking exports to that country (page 9). It was not a happy time for the Allies on this new front. Also in today’s paper - The results of the French Flag Day are published by the French Relief Fund in a classified advertisement, which due to it breaking down the results by location runs over through the whole of page 2 and much of page 3 - German treatment of British invalids held in that country is criticised by members of the American Embassy in Berlin – page 5 - A tremendous rush is reported as Lord Derby’s recruitment campaign enters its final days, and the situation is reported in some depth on pages 9 and 10. However the medical profession is unhappy at the number of students called up (page 10) - The State is to take over all the pubs in an unnamed “border township that would be little known but for its romantic history” which “is about to be converted into a munition centre” – page 10. Gretna is the place thus camouflaged - The National Committee for Relief in Belgium plans a Christmas Day collection “by means of strong paper envelopes” to be passed round dinner tables countrywide – page 10

9th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph Still the diplomatic situation with Greece took up plenty of newsprint, with two articles by E. J. Dillon on page 9 and two by G. J. Stevens on page 11 leading the way. One is beginning to wonder just how much more can be written on this topic. Also in today’s paper - The Y.W.C.A. appeals for recreation rooms for girls and women in military centres, and W. Joynson-Hicks M.P. calls the war a blessing in disguise as it has decreased selfishness among the English – page 3 - The Captain of the Lusitania answers critics over his crew’s behaviour during its sinking – page 7 - After their depredations on a Greek steamer carrying a British MP reported the previous day, “one more item in the long list of deliberate acts in contempt of the Law of Nations which stand to the account of our enemies” according to a predictably outraged leader on page 8, the Austrians go on to shell American ships (also page 8). - Back to the refusal to believe opposing claims of success on page 9 over Bulgarian reports on Serbia. Claims by the Austrian navy are also given short shrift on page 10 - A report on the inadequate supply of horses to the British military is issued – page 10 - The Christmas Bazaar at the Albert Hall opens, and there was “plenty of animation” there – page 11 :

8th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: The Bishop of Salisbury finds himself the subject of a court case from a churchwarden forbidden from exercising his office after using offensive language against his rector – page 5. What he is alleged to have said to the rector was obviously not fit to be printed, as it is blanked out - Admiral Tirpitz gets an iron statue of himself at Wilhemshaven, with room for 250,0000 nails to be pressed in it, but the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin is not impressed – page 7 - King George V gives the Church Army £25 to help build an army hut – page 7 - The Post Office prepares for Christmas – page 7 - G. J. Stevens gives details of the fall of Monastir on page 9 - King Constantine of Greece gives an interview to an American journalist in which he stresses Greek neutrality and claims when his countrymen re-elected Venizelos earlier in the year it was the man and not his policies, which they did not understand, which was elected, which is an interesting interpretation of a democratic election. Greek neutrality doesn’t seem to hold much water with the Austrians though, who capture a British MP travelling on a Greek steamer. Both articles page 9 - The Marquess of Crewe explains in the House of Lords why General Townshend had to retreat from Baghdad – superior numbers and powerful artillery for the Turks – page 9 - General Smuts furnishes South African troops for the campaign in German East Africa – page 9 - The “most vigorous and significant passage” of Woodrow Wilson’s address to Congress is, as far as the Telegraph is concerned, that concerning “plots and conspiracies against national security within the borders of the United States;” although he doesn’t finger any nationality in particular over this the Telegraph is in little doubt he means Germans – pages 9 and 10 - The Army tells its drivers to proceed at a moderate speed, particularly in London’s darkened streets – page 10. As to what it considers a moderate speed there is no hint :

7th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: “The roast beef of England remains the joint of all joints” claimed a leader on page 8 today as the Telegraph celebrated the holding of the Smithfield Show, and certainly wasn’t underselling it – “there never was a time when the activities of this association [the Smithfield Club] were so important to the national wellbeing as now” it carried on. Perhaps it was buoyed up by the fact King George V had a prize cow there, which headed the report and full list of awards on page 7, and could be seen in all its glory on page 3. Not that there was much going on elsewhere to dominate news – submarine action off the Dardanelles was given the banner headline on page 9, but the report was brief and the major news article was yet more on Lord Derby’s recruiting push on pages 9 and 10. Also in today’s paper - Captain Bean’s despatch from the Dardanelles is entertainingly descriptive of what observing bombs being dropped on the enemy is like – page 5 - Swedes visiting the Allied lines in the Western Front come away impressed – “the best disciplined, the best equipped, and the best organised in the world” one proclaims – page 5. Of course, if they had said anything else, one doubts it would have been reported - From the sound of Philip Gibbs’ latest article it isn’t much fun in Flanders at the moment – page 6 - The Central Board of Liquor Control announces that it does not plan to compel licensed houses to close on Christmas Day or Boxing Day, contrary to some rumours – page 9 - Picture postcards are forbidden to be sent to neutral countries, says the War Office – page 9 - Germany is pouring troops into Belgium – page 11

6th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Not  much of particular note in today’s paper, but stories include: - The Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Derby exchange correspondence on the place of the Clergy in Derby’s recruiting scheme – page 7 - The Allies reaffirm their commitment not a conclude a separate peace – page 9 - The latest report from Mesopotamia admits to heavy British losses and a forced withdrawal – page 9 - A. Beaumont is hopeful that at least of Serbia’s army has survived the invasion of that country – page 9 - The Americans reveal just how much Germany has spent on plots on that continent on page 9, whilst on the same page the latest plotters receive a year and a half in prison - Another eyewitness account of Turkish atrocities in Armenia appears on page 10 - More derision is heaped on Henry Ford’s “Peace Ark” as it sets sail – page 10

5th December 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 5th December 1915.

The translation is:

4th December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Reichstag to debate peace” runs the banner headline on page 9 today. So would readers be able to think that Germany was wearying of the war and wished to bring it to an end? No was the answer, if they read the answer below, as this was a country which clearly thought it was in a position of strength, as apparently “nobody understands why our enemies, after their diplomatic defeats in the Balkans and their military failures, have not yet begun peace negotiations” although the suggestion was made that the Allies were blind to reality and will not treat any peace suggestions from the Germans “in a sensible fashion.” “The cunning of the nursery” is how the Telegraph in a leader on page 8 regarded all this, giving short shrift to what it saw as an attempt to appeal to “all that is faint-hearted, mean-spirited, treacherous and slavish in the camp of the Allies” which was doomed to fail. Also in today’s paper - A Reuters correspondent reveals German U-boats ae sending out false wireless signals in an attempt to trap shipping – page 6 - Lord Derby’s recruiting campaign appeals for canvassers ahead of its final push (page 7), a push which stats with a letter on the manhood of the nation on page 9 - The new drink orders for London are revealed to have “a marked effect in the number of convictions for drunkenness” which considering the draconian nature which has led to all the protests so far is hardly surprising – page 7 - General Joffre is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies – pages 8 and 10 - Italy plans to send troops to Albania to assist the Serbs – page 9 - More on Government expenditure on page 9 today, with the revelation that the Stationery Office costs £1.2 million per annum - A. Beaumont reports on the “Last agony of Monastir” on page 10 and the “terrible sufferings” of the retreating Serbs - A patriotic protest in German-occupied Warsaw is met with gunfire, reports a despatch from Petrograd on page 11 - On page 12 the women’s page gives its suggestions for breakfast fare, including Poached egg friture and Polenta fritters, whilst a report below that shows how girls are being taught about “the technical part of railway service” near East Croydon station, which is a tad more positive that the one about the “keen air of poverty” felt by London’s flower girls next to it  

3rd December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: “There is no Government in Europe so highly paid as that of this country” observes an analysis of Government spending on page 9 today, which reveals the costs of various departments and individuals. It turned out that the highest individual sum, £20,000, was paid to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, a figure matched with fees by the Attorney-General. Whilst the Telegraph wished to “utter no word of criticism of the occupants of these offices” it was not impressed in a leader on page 8, wondering whether such figures were appropriate at a time of calls for economy and even whether they “represent value received by the nation,” wondering whether a figure six times as much as that received by the Commander of the Grand Fleet (Sir John Jellicoe) whose responsibility was immense at this time was appropriate. The leader indeed goes on to describe the cost of Government as “excessively costly” and clearly hoped that retrenchment would start at the top.
Presumably the Government’s acceptance of a horse-racing stud and training establishment (page 9) will only add to this bill.
Also in today’s paper
- All of page 4 and part of page 5 is turned over to ideas for Christmas books
- The Belgium fund, now over 13 months’ old, tops the 3 million shillings mark – page 7 - George Bernard Shaw says peace is out the question until Germany is defeated, as otherwise it would mean “a tremendous triumph for the German army and its prestige, which we were out to combat” – page 7 - Mainly through announcements in Italy, it seems that the Allies and Greece are reaching some sort of concord – page 9 - Henry Ford’s attempt to send a peace ship to Europe is attracting derision in America before it has even set sail – page 9 - A Special Correspondent on page 10 paints a grim picture of what has been captured from the Russians by the Central Powers, almost as if to give the impression it has been nothing of worth. - A letter writer on page 10 denounces as “monstrous” the penalty of a £100 fine and six months’ hard labour to those breaching the liquor control restrictions - Sweden reaffirms her neutrality, despite a grouping called the Activists calling on her to enter on the side of the Central Powers – page 10 - 

2nd December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: - One place where the “no treating” order is not applied is the House of Commons, and despite 180 members asking the Kitchen Committee to put it into force there, it decides the whole house should make the decision, thereby passing the buck – page 8
- A Dupont plant in the USA explodes with 30 deaths, and the articles are quick to put the blame on German-Americans, if not the Germans themselves – page 9. The Germans are also fingered as behind a plot to blow up important points of Italian railways – page 10
- The Bulgarians claim the Anglo-French troops in Serbia have got nowhere, and in fact have been pushed back – page 9. A subsequent article even goes so far to have them refer to the “Anglo-French comedy at Salonika.” Interestingly nowhere is there anything refuting this
- The Government makes it clear to organised labour that national economy is needed, and thus there should not be demands for higher wages – pages 9 and 10 - The first cinema pictures of the war are ready for screening, reports Philip Gibbs on page 11 - Violent scenes in the Roumanian parliament after the opposition cry “Down with Hungary! Down with the Germans!” – page 11 - General Sir Ian Hamilton praises the Zion Mule Corps – page 11 - An ex-officer is in court in page 13 for not only wearing a uniform without authority but bigamy .

1st December 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph: Lord Kitchener’s return to the UK had been announced by the Press Bureau in a 5-line announcement (page 9), but this brief notice and a couple of slightly longer ones concerning him on the same page (plus the information he had returned in time for Violet Asquith’s wedding), the Telegraph saw fit to pen a lengthy leader about him and his trip on page 8. Even though it admitted that the whole itinerary was unlikely to have been disclosed and it would be some time, if at all, that the conclusions he had drawn from his visit would be communicated, it still saw fit to proclaim “no more important or more promising step has been taken by any British Minister since the first days of the war” and his trip would give the nation confidence that the nation’s “strength is being used with clear aims and firm intentions.” In an age which is far more cynical about those in power it is hard to read something giving such unquestioning support to one of these without raising an eyebrow.
Also in today’s paper
- A suggestion is made to provide holly as a Christmas decoration in war hospitals – page 3
- German socialists are unhappy at the refusal of the Government to drop the old age pension age from 70 to 65 – page 3
- The experiences of British people in invaded Serbia are recounted on page 9 - “Too much importance cannot be attached to the great gathering which is to be held this morning” reports Our Parliamentary Correspondent on page 9 on a conference between the Government and trade union executives and officials on the financial position of the nation as it affects organised labour - “A brilliant raid” sees two German generals captured by the Russians – page 10 - Imports of all machine tools and parts thereof into the UK are banned save for those under Board of Trade license – page 10 - Today’s letter of appeal: giving convalescent soldiers “health-giving” drives in motorcars – page 12 - “Impudent frauds” concerning people attempting to obtain money from the War Office with falsified claims on dead soldiers’ estates are condemned by a judge when sentencing perpetrators on page 13 - After the authoress Annesley Kenealy case, another case of somebody in a court case taking poison, this time a defendant, on page 13  .

30th November 1915

Émilienne Moreau-Evrard is one of France most revered heroines, highly decorated for her acts duringthe Great War and the Second World War. During the occupation of Loss in the Great War Emilienne continued her chosen profession as a teacher, creating an improvised class room in a cellar

During a British counter attack  launched on the 25th September 1915 to retake Loos, and still only seventeen Emilienne provided the British with sufficient intelligence on German emplacements’ in a local stronghold, that they were rendered virtually useless. Émilienne continued to aid the British by organising a first aid post in her house, with the help of a Scottish doctor she tended to wounded soldiers in her care.

In a later incident, with the help of some British Tommie’s, she rushed from her home armed with a handful of grenades to rescue a British soldier who was pinned down by enemy fire, forcing the Germans to retreat into a nearby house.  Arming herself with a revolver she shoots two German soldiers though a closed wooden door.

For her action Émilienne Moreau is awarded the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with an army acknowledgement given directly by Marshal Ferdinand Foch and the Croix du Combattant by the French Army. The British too acknowledge her heroism and is awarded the Military Medal; she also receives the Royal Red Cross (first class) and the Venerable Order of Saint John. This last award is rarely given to a woman. She was personally invited to meet the President of the French Republic Raymond Poincaré and later the British King, George V.

 The French newspaper Le Petit Parisian wrote in detail of her exploits, making her a national hero. The army and the press use her image for propaganda and in 1916 her exploits were made into a film. The Joan of Arc of Loos (1916).  After graduating, she ended the war teaching in a boys' school in Paris.

After the Great War Émilienne marries the socialist activist Just Evrard in 1932, two years later she is appointed as General Secretary of the women's socialist movement of her department.

Émilienne, who was known by the Germans for her actions in the Great War, is immediately placed under house arrest, following the occupation of France during World War 2, eventually allowed to return to Lens, she started to distribute propaganda brochures against Marshal Philippe Pétain and his capitulation and started to feed the British Intelligence Service with crucial information. At the end of 1940, Emillienne and her husband created a secret section of her socialist party in Lens.

She was known by her aliases “Jeanne Poirier” and “Émilienne la Blonde “in French Resistance circles and as a member of “France au Combat” (“The Fighting French”) which was founded in 1943 by André Boyer, she worked with Augustin Laurent, André Le Troquer and Pierre Lambert. From March 1944 until her escape to the U.K in August 44 she was on the Gestapo’s most wanted list.

For her work in the French resistance, she was awarded the rare title of Compagnon de la Libération by General Charles de Gaulle in Béthune in August 1945. When World War II was over, she became a politician in the French Socialist Party.
Émilienne Moreau-Evrard died on 5th January 1971 and was buried in Lens, aged 72 years old.

Officer of the Légion d'honneur
Compagnon de la Libération - legislative bill of August 11, 1945
Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with one palm
Croix de guerre 1939-1945
Croix du combattant
Croix du combattant volontaire de la Résistance
Military Medal
Royal Red Cross
Venerable Order of Saint John

In todays' Daily Telegraph:The Union of Democratic Control peace rally being held in Farringdon, London was disrupted by  a collection of medical students and soldiers  who clearly decided that the expression of such views should not be allowed and took measures to prevent it being taken, including “stink pots” and physical force

Given the way the Telegraph reported on American peace groups the day before, it is no surprise to see the students and soldiers being portrayed in a sympathetic, if not heroic light, and the Union of Democratic Control vilified for its views.

Also in today’s paper

- The case of novelist Annesley Kenealy, (see November 20) takes a new twist at a hearing where she is charged with attempting to commit suicide, as the house physician at the hospital where she was taken claims the bottle of poison she claimed to drink was nothing of the sort – page 4

- The new set of awards for distinguished service includes 99 men being granted the Distinguished Conduct Medal, with the details of how each man earned it given on page 6

- Can one ever get used to a boat collision or such like being described as an “exciting incident,” as the collision of two pilot boats off Deal is described on page 7?

- Lord Derby writes to the chairman of the British Red Cross informing him that he considers that the proper place of many men doing work for it is in the fighting ranks and that the Red Cross should enable this to be so – page 9

- After all the complaints beforehand there is “no organised resentment” to London’s new drink restrictions, the first day of which is covered at some length on pages 9 and 10

- “The entire world must prepare to shudder when all that is happening on the Albanian refugee trails comes to light” claims an American journalist detailing the “terrible suffering” of the Serbs, reported on page 10

- A young American is pardoned for spying for the Germans in London through the intervention of Theodore Roosevelt, and the British government’s “mercy and magnanimity” in this case is favourably contrasted with the German treatment of Edith Cavell – page 10

- The Foreign Office issues “a choice collection of German mendacities” bringing “amazing charges” against the Allies in the Cameroons – page 10

- The Y.M.C.A. takes out a full-page advert on page 12 to highlight its huts for soldiers, and appeal for more money for the cause

29th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph: G. Ward Price was able to report today on the British troops doing their bit for Serbia, with a report from that country about the troops’ experiences in Macedonia on page 9. However, G. J. Stevens from Athens gave the impression that it might be too little too late, given his claim on the same page that “the end of Serbia has come,” which suggested the “German boasts” over on page 10 might be justifiable. Also in today’s paper - The Government issues a bill prohibiting increases in rent and mortgage interest are prohibited in certain areas – page 7 - An article on page 10 shows that 462 Old Etonians have been killed since the outbreak of war; the institution’s St Andrew’s day sports are also deemed worthy of an article on page 11 - “Daring Parachute Descent” on page 7 and “Naval Airman’s Feat” on page 10 tell the same story, which isn’t very clever - The paper clearly has little time for peace groups in the USA, given the headline and tone to the report “Peacemongers in the United States” on page 11-

28th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 28th November 1915.

The translation is:

King Peter of Serbia in the trench

27th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph:- According to the acting secretary of the Boy Scouts’ Association, between 15 and 20 thousand of their number are now serving in the forces – page 5
- The Serbs make an appeal to the Americans with the claim that three million of their number are suffering from starvation (page 6) and “shocking atrocities” are claimed to have been perpetrated upon them in an article on page 7
- The Bechstein Hall in London loses its music licence on the grounds its proprietors are alien enemies – page 6
- “Salonika today must be a sort of paradise for spies” claims an article on page 7 - Queen Mary and two of her children (including the future George VI) visit a factory manufacturing equipment for the army – page 8 - The British are back on the advance towards Baghdad – page 9 - More evidence for Turkish massacres of the Armenians appears on pages 9 and 10 - The number of marriages in the second quarter of 1915 is the highest quarterly figure since records began in 1837, but the number of births in the third quarter is the lowest-ever – page 10 - Plenty more on the resistance to increased drinking restrictions in London on page 10, with a leader on page 8 showing sympathy with the protestors, if not always their methods - The Prussian War Minister plans to ban Christmas greetings home from soldiers at the front, allegedly so they can’t express a wish for an early termination of the war – page 11 .

26th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph: Greece provides a satisfactory answer to the Allies’ demands on her (page 9). The Serbian Army is still in retreat (page 9). More on Lord Derby and his recruitment campaign (page 5) and the hostility to London’s drink restrictions (page 6). The Chancellor of the Exchequer claims victory is “assured” (page 10). There is a very familiar feel to much of the news today, even one of the major developments, the Italian capture of Gorizia (page 9), comes after four months’ fighting.
Also in today’s paper
- After Leonard Spray’s article the previous day, Bernard Pares joins in with stories of escaped Russian prisoners of war on the Eastern Front, albeit a month out of date – page 4. Also on that page, the “interesting story” is told of a German captured on that front who took a round-the-world route to return home, only to be captured again in the North Sea
- A 67-year-old soldier is tried for theft in Windsor – page 4. On page 5 comes a report of a jewellery theft in Hatton Gardens
- Success is proclaimed certain for France’s first great war loan – page 7. As if any other outcome would be reported - Perceval Landon reports from Persia on page 11, commenting that it is "sad but easy to follow the aimless impotence of what passes for policy” there - MP’s give Herbert Asquith’s daughter Violet a wedding present – page 11. Hard to imagine something like this a century on - A Judge is proud to produce his third-class season ticket in court – page 13

25th November 1915

In todays a Daily Telegraph: It was over a week since Lord St. Davids had attacked Headquarters Staff in the Lords, but the outrage at his assertions still persisted. The Earl of Derby, today addressing the Stock Exchange (pages 9 and 10) rebutted his assertions as having “not a word of truth” and referred to a “stabbing in the back” which gave the title to the latest polemical leader (page 8) attacking “one of the most deplorable episodes in the recent history of Parliament” and expressing outrage at the lack of an apology for the claims. Add in a letter adjacent to his also rebutting the charges as “unfounded” and it was clear this story was still very much live.
Also in today’s paper
- We had the buffet at Victoria two days ago, now it is the turn of London Bridge today on page 4
- Ongoing annoyance over London’s drink restrictions leads to an open-air demonstration at Smithfield Market – page 7
- Want of water forces the British to withdraw from a captured position near Baghdad – page 9. According to the Germans the troops, having marched from Cairo, were routed by the Turks – page 10, although the article has an appendix denying this “amazing march” has happened - Page 10 has a report on the Last Battle of the Foreign Legion - Two Daily Telegraph war maps are turned into card games – page 10 - Russian prisoners are used as forced labour in Belgium, reports Leonard Spray on page 12  .

24th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph: Serbia was still dominating the news, with two major articles and several smaller ones on page 9 alone today. A delayed despatch from G. J. Stevens about Monastir led the way, a “vivid story of Serbia’s struggle” proclaimed the banner headline, whilst he painted a further “sombre picture” in a later despatch. Add in the next part of G. Ward Price’s despatch about the French forces fighting there, which continued on to page 10, and Telegraph readers had plenty to digest about the situation there. Also in today’s paper - A bit of a curious choice of Christmas card by King George V, in a picture of the 1591 action in which the Revenge took on a whole Spanish fleet, for whilst it was a gallant stand, it still lost (page 3) - In aid of National Book Fortnight W. L. Courtney waxes lyrical about the joys of reading fiction – page 4 - An article on page 7 assesses what would be sensible economies in war time - “No Greek ships are being seized or held up in the ports of the United Kingdom, and no blockade of Greek ports has been instituted or is in force” claims the Foreign Office on page 9, despite what has been reported over the last two days - The postponement of the Parliament and Registration Bill suggests there are some difficulties to be resolved with this legislation – page 9 - Theatre managers will be permitted to allow smoking at weekends in their venues – page 9 - A witness is missing from the trial of a German plotter in America, whilst the prosecution implicates the German embassy in the affair – page 10 - Lord Derby fells an American journalist of his belief that there are “few slackers now” – page 10 - American jockey Tod Sloan is detained and ordered to be deported under the provisions of the Defence of the Realm act, whilst a French actress is also held, in a situation which causes “considerable surprise” in London – page 10. No explanation is given as to why - “No beer, no work” is the slogan as opposition grows to the latest liquor restrictions in London – page 11 - A claim is made on page 11 that in two days at Loos the Germans lost 80% of their men, “higher than ever hoped for.” Imagine the derision that would be heaped upon an German claim of that nature - A British airman turns the tables after engine trouble means his plane is captured in “an extraordinary story” on page 11


23rd November 1915

Corporal Alfred George Drake of the 8 Rifle Brigade was part of a four-man patrol sent out into no man’s land o the night of 23 November. The patrol was discovered when it was illuminated by an enemy flare and came under heavy fire, Lt Tryon, the officer in command of the patrol and one rifleman were shot and wounded almost instantly. Corporal Drake ordered the surviving rifleman to drag the wounded soldier back to the British lines; Lt Tryon wounds were more serious and needed immediate medical attention so Drake remained with his officer tending his wounds.

his citation reads: For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 23rd Nov., 1915, near La Brique, France. He was one of a patrol of four which was reconnoitring towards the German lines. The patrol was discovered when close to the enemy who opened heavy fire with rifles and a machine gun, wounding the Officer and one man. The latter was carried back by the last remaining man. Corporal Drake remained with his Officer and was last seen kneeling beside him and bandaging his wounds regardless of the enemy's fire. Later a rescue party crawling near the German lines found the Officer and Corporal, the former unconscious but alive and bandaged, Corporal Drake beside him dead and riddled with bullets. He had given his own life and saved his Officer.

In todays' Daily Telegraph: - Page 4 is given over to National Book Fortnight, and for the first time since its publication the previous month you’ll find mention of one of the year’s most famous novels, John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps, in the paper. On page 11 you can read about the most popular book in Berlin, which imagines a triumphal entry of the Germans into London
- One of “several chapters in the record of women’s war work yet to be written” is covered on page 5 with an account of the buffets for soldiers provided at London Victoria station. Inversely, an article on page 7 covers canteens for women munition workers
- The War Office announces regulation on Christmas mail to the troops, which had to be limited “in military interests” – page 5
- A “well-known boxer” is court-martialled for inciting men in his platoon to mutiny and refusing to go on parade – page 5 - The banner headline on page 9 speaks of a “Pacific blockade of Greece” which sounds a tad hard to enforce, and doesn’t really relate to any of the articles on the current situation there, including more on Lord Kitchener’s visit - The fighting by French forces in the Balkans is documented by G. Ward Price on pages 9 and 10 - The official list of occupations from which recruits are not to be drawn under the Earl of Derby’s scheme takes up a fair portion of page 10 - The Italians report racing “veritable hurricanes of shells” in an article on page 10 - The tale of how Lieutenant-Commander Layton of submarine E13 escaped from internment in Denmark is copied from the Liverpool Courier – page 11 .

22nd November 1915

20th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 21st November 1915.


Joseph Simon Gallieni was appointed minister of war for France in 1915, a position he held until his resignation in March 1916. At the outbreak of the Great War he was called out of retirement and appointed Military Governor of Paris. During the battle of the Marne in 1914 he is remembered as being instrumental in commandering Parisian Taxicabs and rushing elements of the sixth army to the front and launching an attack on the German west flank.

Throughout the early years of the Great War, Gallieni was constantly at odds with Marshal Joseph Joffre, this culminated in Gallieni’s public criticism of Joffre’s tactical abilities at the siege of Verdun, the unseemly falling out of two senior officers was deemed to be disastrous for military moral and Gallieni resigned his position, but was persuaded to remain in office until a replacement had been designated and approved.

Joseph Simon Gallieni who was suffering from cancer died on the 27th May 1916. He was made Marshal of France posthumously in 1921, he is considered by the French to be their most distinguished soldier, but he is infamous in Madagascar when as Governor he was the French military leader who exiled Queen Ranavalona III and abolished the 350-year-old monarchy on the island. Gallieni wanted the French army to give up the red trousers worn by French soldiers and adopt a less conspicuous uniform, Gallieni proposed attacking the Turkish straits in 1914, and was sceptical of Joffre’s plans for a massive Anglo-French offensive on the Somme.

20th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph:Quite a packed paper for articles of some interest today, so straight to a list of them:
- Funny how it’s the royal schoolboy that the Telegraph focusses on in the photo of “Eton College Boys’ War Work” on page 3, in the shape of the future Duke of Gloucester
- A dramatic scene at the Law Courts on page 5 as an authoress who had lost a case against W. H. Smith over alleged malicious comments over her book “a Water Fly’s Wooing” (case reported on page 4) tells the judge he has ruined her life and drinks poison, and is subsequently taken to hospital where it is reported she is recovering
- Claude Phillips is a busy man today, looking at the effects on the art of Verona of the Austrian bombing on page 5, reporting that the National Portrait Gallery has closed for the duration of the war on page 6 and reviewing an exhibition of modern original drawings on page 7
- More on Edith Cavell’s last days from members of her nursing institution arriving at Tilbury on page 6 - J. M. Barrie contributes a play to a war relief matinée on behalf of wounded Australasian soldiers called “The Fatal Typist” – a “whimsical trifle” reports the paper (page 6) - The honorary secretary of the Russia Society writes a letter on page 6 deploring facetious remarks made over the pronunciation of Russian names - Life under German occupation in France and Belgium is the subject of two adjacent articles on page 7 - “Much interesting information concerning the effects of war conditions on women’s employment is contained in the report for 1914 of the Chief Inspector of Factories” which forms an article on page 7, although you’d have thought given most of 1915 has passed conditions might well be different again - Rudyard Kipling’s latest series of articles “The Fringes of the Fleet” opens on page 9 - The Earl of Derby and Herbert Asquith reiterate that married men are not to be called up until the stock of young unmarried men is exhausted – page 9 - “All hope abandoned” for the Serb town of Monastir reports A. Beaumont on page 9, who also on the same page gives details of the Captain of the sunk liner Ancona’s account of its demise - The latest liquor regulations for London are given in full on pages 9 and 10, with a leader on the subject on page 8 which expresses some disquiet at the perceived need to treat some areas of the capital in the same way as more military-industrial areas - Philip Gibbs argues that it is still correct to publish new stories from Loos as he proceeds to do just that in what the Telegraph considers to be a “thrilling story” on page 10 - Lord Charles Beresford weighs in on Churchill’s resignation speech, and damns the erstwhile First Lord for his assumption of responsibility, and the naval bombardment of the Dardanelles as a “mad scheme” – page 10. On page 6 the Germans try to make propaganda capital out of the resignation  .

19th November 1915

In todays Daily Telegraph:The plots concerning Lord Kitchener and the Dardanelles campaign took a dramatic turn today in a report on page 9, as “certain facts of first-class interest and importance” concerning them “was slipped out in an almost casual way” in the House of Lords, when it the course of a “discursive speech” by Lord Ribblesdale and a reply to it by lord Lansdowne it emerged just where Kitchener had gone on his mysterious leave of absence. Apparently the incoming commander to the Dardanelles, Sir Charles Monro, had reported that the military position was such that his recommendation was withdrawal, which might explain his sudden hasty reallocation to the Serbian front, and Kitchener had been asked by Herbert Asquith on behalf of the Cabinet to give “a second expert opinion” on the situation there. No wonder precise details of what had prompted Kitchener’s departure to the “Near East” had not been forthcoming.
Also in today’s paper
- No sooner are survivors from the hospital ship Anglia are landed assure than there is a letter of appeal for them, on page 5. Interestingly a report on the same page on the sinking reveals the steamer which came to its assistance was called Lusitania, and coincidentally the latest American demand to the Germans over the sinking of her bigger counterpart also appears on that page
- The National Patriotic Association, in association with the Textile Association, draws up terms upon which businesses can urge the whole of their employees of military age to enlist are given on page 5. Meanwhile London banks decide to do their bit for the recruiting cause by closing at 3pm (page 7)
- The Assistant Postmaster-General updates information on postal arrangements to the Dardanelles (page 5) - A special article on page 7 looks at the hardships to the hotel and restaurant trade created by the sale of liquor restrictions. Meanwhile Japan tries to develop its beer industry to replace the German beer trade in India (same page) - London clubs are ordered to close from midnight to 5am at weekends and 12.30am to 5 on weekday nights – page 9 - Controversy at the Alhambra theatre, where a play by a young Russian dramatist to be performed in front of a royal audience as part of Russia’s day is cancelled minutes before it is due to start, as management take fright at the suggestion it is unsuitable for the occasion – page 9 - A bumper day for new VC holders, with the announcement of no fewer than 18 awards (pages 9 and 10) - Lord Derby meets an enthusiastic audience amongst the “practical” Scots as his tour explaining his recruiting plans goers north of the border – page 10 - A Highgate man is fined £10 for playing the Hamburg State Lottery in continuance of the three decade-long hobby – page 12 - An appeal is made in a letter on page 12 for readers to buy socks knitted by Hebridean fishergirls whose normal trade had been closed off due to war .

18th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph; Although the Serbs were making a heroic stand, offset by an article further down the page that the Bulgars had forced a pass, King George V expressed shock at the sinking of a hospital ship after hitting the mine, and a Swedish torpedo-boat came to the rescue of a British merchant ship under attack in Swedish waters from a German destroyer (all page 9), the fact that the banner headline on page 9 and leader on page 8 concentrate on the fact the Allies were having a war council in Paris demonstrated the relative paucity of anything particularly new or notable in today’s paper, despite a typically evocative article by Philip Gibbs on his visit to the French front on page 10..

17th November 1915

James Huntley Knight joined The King's Liverpool Regiment as a 14 year old band boy. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 21st August 1900, his citation reads: J Knight, Corporal, 1st Battalion The Liverpool Regiment, No 1 Company, 4th Division, Mounted Infantry. On the 21st August during the operations near Van Wyk's Vlei, Corporal Knight was posted in some rocks with four men,

covering the right rear of a detachment of the same company, who, under Captain Ewart, were holding the right of the line. The enemy, about fifty strong, attacked Captain Ewart's right and almost surrounded, at short range, Corporal Knight's small party. That non-commissioned officer held his ground, directing his party to retire one by one to better cover, while he maintained his position for nearly an hour, covering the withdrawal of Captain Ewart's force, and losing two of his four men. He then retired, bringing with him two wounded men. One of these he left in a place of safety, the other he carried for nearly two miles. The party were hotly engaged during the whole time".

After 19 years’ service he retired from the regiment but following the outbreak of the Great War he enlisted on 25 August in the 11th (Empire Battalion) Royal Fusiliers, later renumbered 17th Royal Fusiliers, and was rapidly promoted Regimental Sergeant Major. In January 1915 he was commissioned as temporary Lieutenant in the 20th Battalion Manchester regiment being promoted temporary Captain May 1915. He relinquished this commission in October 1915 and then re-enlisted the following month as a Private under the name of James Huntley Knight in the London Scottish Regt. He was promoted to Lance Corporal and then Corporal before being wounded at Gommecourt in the Somme on 26th June 1916. He was discharged from the army on 15th March 1917.

In todays' Daily Telegraph:Not quite as interesting a paper today as yesterday, although page 11 has a rather curious article about the Albert Hall cancelling a meeting due to be held there by the Women’s Social and Political Union on the grounds it “cannot be described as patriotic,” even though the meeting was aimed at demanding “the loyal vigorous conduct of the war.” However it was also going to be critical of Herbert Asquith and Sir Edward Grey and denounce the Foreign Office’s “betrayal of Serbia,” which seems to have not gone down well with the powers that be. Nevertheless Emmeline Pankhurst was undeterred and declared her determination to hold it elsewhere. And at the base of page 5 comes an advert by S. Goff & Co. which offers a quite remarkable bag, given what it claims to contain… Also in today’s paper - “We welcome the coming of Christmas in no Scrooge-like spirit” says a leader countering the “killjoys” who advocate “a policy of gloom, repression and abstention” on page 8 - “Less favourable” news from Serbia on page 9 - Winter has arrived in Flanders says a report on page 9 - Admiral Lord Fisher’s self-restraint in replying to Winston Churchill’s apologia the previous day will be applauded by the country reckons an article on page 9. Meanwhile Churchill receives a painting of himself from the Armoured Car Squadron in tribute to his efforts on their behalf – page 10 - France and Italy make threats to Greece over what is seen as her potentially treacherous behaviour, whilst Lord Kitchener arrives in the country – page 9

16th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph; Whilst readers would know that it was the right centre page that was the main news page, normally page 9 at this moment of time, there are occasions where other news pages actually turn out to have more of interest. Whilst today the major news is Winston Churchill’s defence of his actions so far in the war in his resignation speech, which held the Commons in “enthralled attention” although the leader opposite on page 8 didn’t seem quite so keen about some of its contents, both praising and criticising him it its course, the paper being unhappy with his attempts at blame deflection aimed at Lords Fisher and Kitchener, and is admittedly not without interest, page 4 turns out to have a fascinating mixture of articles amongst its contents. Here you can read about historian Arnold Toynbee giving more examples of Turkish atrocities in Armenia, an article on the Dardanelles campaign talking of meeting an ex-brigand and having a picnic, Austrian “maniacs of murder” outraging A. Beaumont by bombing Verona, a “pretty girl of 17” being nicknamed the “Joan of Arc of the North” and awarded the Croix de Guerre for her killing of Germans at Loos and discover that the weather was seasonable for the “real start” of Christmas shopping. Page 10 is also worth a look. “No one can describe Baghdad nowadays; few and those are unwise ones, try” claims Perceval Landon, who goes on to do just that in writing about “the kernel of the east” in an article on this page, whilst Theodore Roosevelt gives his latest opinions on war, United States policy and diplomacy to a French journalist (page 10) and Philip Gibbs recounts the tale of two escaped Russian prisoners of war suddenly appearing in the British lines. An interesting and wide-ranging issue it is today. Also in today’s paper - A “rush of recruits at Scotland Yard” is reported creating a “curious condition of affairs” at Old Scotland Yard – page 7 - “A war munitions factory is the most inspiring sight in Britain” claims W. T. Massey as he continues his series on the topic on pages 9 and 10, writing today about patriotism at the lathe by women - Scarce and costly fruit could impact on Christmas puddings, reports an article on page 12  .

15th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph;As Selfridge’s in its customary full-page advert on page 13 notes, there are only 30 full shopping days to Christmas, and certainly there are a noticeable number of Christmas-related adverts through the paper today. Does this show a determination to keep the festival as much as possible despite the wartime conditions? Perhaps the oddest sounding one comes to page 5, where Robinson & Cleaver advertises its “great handkerchief week.” Yes, seriously. Also in today’s paper - The worst gale for 20 years hits the Irish Sea on page 5 - A Home Office advisory committee details means of getting women into clerical jobs so men can be freed to go and fight – page 6 - A leader on page 8 advocates the Allies taking a firm line with “wavering States and their monarchs” to persuade them who to back in the war - General Russky claims the Central Powers are no longer capable of springing “unpleasant ‘surprises’” upon his army – page 9 - More successes for the Allies in Serbia are reported on page 9 - The Berliner Tageblatt publishes an article which praises Lord Kitchener, so naturally the Telegraph considers this to be “one of the frankest and most clear-minded articles that have appeared in the Berlin Press” – page 9 - A Correspondent pays an “interesting visit” to H.M.A.S. Australia on page 10 whilst Archibald Hurd next to this article considers Germany’s sending to U-boats to the Mediterranean as an expression of her failure to successfully carry out “piracy” around the British Isles - Philip Gibbs sings the praises of the Royal Flying Corps – the “eyes of the army” – on page 10 - Methuen & Sons are ordered to destroy copies of D H. Lawrence’s novel The Rainbow by the courts after the novel is denounced as a “disgusting, detestable, and pernicious work” and “utter filth” – page 12  .

14th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 14th November 1915.

The translation is:


Good news falling from the sky

13th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph: No question what the major news was today, with the announcement that Winston Churchill has resigned from Government and intended to join his regiment at the Front. In the customary fashion of an exchange of letters between departing minister and Prime Minister Churchill expressed his feeling that with the concentration of power in a small War Council in which he was unable to play a part he was unable to remain in “well-paid inactivity.” Asquith for his part expressed regret at the decision. Page 9 carried the latters and an analysis of Churchill’s “meteoric career” to date, whilst a leader on page 8 considered that, although the news would be “received by the country with great respect and regret” that “a statesman of great ability and great ambition … felt it his duty to resign office” it was the right thing to do, as he was “much too vigorous and dominating a personality to be content with a sinecure, after played so prominent and powerful a part” in the management of the war to date. However, it would not be the last we would see of Churchill in this war… ADVERTISING  Also in today’s paper - A “curious case” is reported amongst the legal cases on page 4 involving a man of alleged German birth enlisting in the army and three women involved in his case - The latest American reports of conditions at German prisoner of war camps indicate an improvement in conditions – page 6 - “An extraordinary sensation” in France with the arrest of a “beautiful adventuress” on espionage charges – page 7 - Howard d’Egville surveys the state of compulsory military service in the Dominions on page 7 - The Russians report a victory in the region of Schlock and successes elsewhere on the front on page 9. Curiously the map accompanying the article doesn’t feature anywhere mentioned in it - More revelations of plots by the Central Powers in the United States on page 9 - An “extraordinarily orderly” retreat by the Serbs is reported in the latest news from that front on page 9 - Today’s letter of appeal is for the care of horses in war-time (page 10), along with clothing for invalid servicemen (page 13) - Publisher John Murray gives a talk on his recollections in that field to the Y.M.C.A., and reveals who Queen Victoria regarded as her greatest Prime Minister (page 10) - The women’s page speaks to lady bus conductors about their experiences, whilst the weekly recipes look at winter sweets, including such delights as the “tasty little dish” orange custard fritters – page 12 .

12th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph: As to be expected more on the sinking of the Ancona was a major story of the day in terms of reportage (pages 9 and 10) but matters parliamentary were no less covered, with a number of articles on pages 9 and 10, as well as the usual lengthy verbatim reports across pages 6 and 7, the most notable of which was a “stern denunciation of an outrageous charge” as Herbert Asquith refutes allegations that Lord Kitchener had resigned in a “highly dramatic scene” in the Commons.
And the powers that be were far from popular in the licensed trade, as an article on page 11 makes it quite clear that it is unhappy with the regulations imposed upon it since the war began.
Also in today’s paper:
- Germans take time out from the war to debate whether handwriting should use gothic or roman characters – page 3
- The paper is still banging on about the lack of protecting the National Gallery is giving its treasures, with another article on page 5 on the matter, kindly giving dates of prior articles at the base. - The intended commander for Gallipoli, General C. C. Monro, is diverted to lead the British troops aiding the Serbs – page 9. Meanwhile there is excitement in Germany over the progress of the fighting there – page 10 - Young unmarried men are warned to enlist or face potential compulsion – page 9 - “Interesting particulars” of the fighting in Mesopotamia arrive in the mail from India – page 10 - The New York Times examines the German mind – page 11

11th November 1915

The first of the few lost his life on this day; Lieutenant Colonel J.D.B. Fulton became the first serving officer in HM Forces to obtain a Royal Aero Club certificate acknowledging hisability to fly an aircraft in 1910

The Italian passenger steamer SS Ancona was an Italian passenger steamer and was torpedoed and sunk without warning on 8th November 1915 by SM U-38, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Max Valentiner off Cape Carbonara. The U-boat was flying the flag of Austria-Hungary as the German Empire was not yet at war with Italy. Over 200 lives were lost including nineAmericans.

In todays' Daily Telegraph;  A retired German butcher is in court for beating a schoolboy after some of his fellows had attacked his house – page 4. The Government takes steps to meet the need for merchant shipping to carry foodstuffs and another necessities by putting controls on shipping between foreign ports and making provisions for requisitioning of ships – page 8 - Expectations as to the vote of credit (see November 4) prove underestimates, as the Government asks for £400 million, but not everyone is happy at its level of expenditure – page 9 - More conflicting news in what “scanty” information is emerging from Serbia, relegated today to page 10 - W. T. Massey reports from Sheffield on how the city’s industry is adapting to the country’s munition needs – page 10 - Tsar Nicholas II experiences what it is like to come under fire during a visit to the front – page 10

10th November 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph:The Lord Mayor’s Show in London and the following Guildhall Banquet seemed to excite the Telegraph the most today. Not only was there an entire column on page 9 on the show itself, but the paper thought the speeches made at the banquet so important that five columns over pages 9 and 10 was given over to coverage, as well as a leader on page 8. Readers could find out what Herbert Asquith, Sir John Simon, the French Ambassador, Arthur Balfour, the Lord Chief Justice and Sir F.E. Smith had to say at quite some length, even if their content was hardly anything they had not heard before during the war. Also in today’s paper - The President of the Swansea Metal Exchange has some condemnatory words to say about strikers on page 3 - Leonard Spray in Rotterdam reports on German’s Zeppelin construction policy on page 6, and perhaps not entirely coincidentally next to this comes a report from a Polish Correspondent about German attempts to get Poles working for them - A French newspaper reports that schoolchildren express indignation at the execution of Edith Cavell when they are taught it in their classes in the country – page 7 - The wartime tradition of poems in the paper continues on page 8 with one on “The Splendid Serb.” With “meagre” news on the fighting there on page 9 the main reporting comes from the previous week’s fighting at Monastir - A new scheme of air raid insurance is announced by the Postmaster-General on page 9 - The Military Correspondent calls for a General Staff on page 11 - The entries for the 1917 1,000 and 2,000 Guineas are lower than previous years, and thus used as an example of how the war is affecting horse breeding and racing on page 13