Gallery Solace - The Great War 1914-1918
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June 2015

30th June 1915

To see tohttp://www.fake.comday’s 1915 Daily Telegraph in PDF format click here

29th June 1915

28th June 1915

26th June 1915

Another day where nothing particularly new or notable leaps out from the pages of the paper, although an advert and application form for the war loan taking up the whole of page 13 can’t be missed.
It is amusing to see that after two gymkhanas, (see June 1 and 15) it is now a horse show for the Indians behind the lines in France (page 10), and curious that we only seem to hear about their leisure activities rather than a military context
Also in today’s paper
- An article on page 7 laments the demise of the fish ordinaries
- Germany gets a taste of its own medicine with a Russian submarine attack on one of its warships, in a “thrilling story” found on page 8 - Russia claims it has inflicted “severe defeats” upon the Germans and Austrians – page 9. Germany admits it has evacuated a village, which is rather less than the “sharp set-back” the headline given to it suggests - The enrolment of munition workers is “proceeding quite satisfactorily” in the London area says an article on page 9 - Socialists generate uproar by calling for peace in the Prussian Diet – page 10

25th June 1915

In today's Daily Telegraph- The inquest on 27 victims of the Quintinshill rail disaster passes a verdict of manslaughter against the signalmen on duty – page 4
- A postal worker is killed when a shell sent as a souvenir from the front explodes in a sorting office – page 6
- “The British Royal Army Medical Corps is acknowledged to be the best military medical service in the world,” starts an article by blowing their trumpet before detailing the work done in casualty clearing stations – page 7 - More Russian spin whilst dismissing the recapture of Lemburg on page 8 - The Vatican is at pains to stress Papal neutrality after an interview in a newspaper, although our Rome correspondent is quick to flag up mischief-making by Austria and Berlin over Benedict’s status – page 10 - An article on problems with the strawberry crop due to the weather has the headline saying “The strawberry failure“ but goes on to say at the start of the third sentence “Failure is perhaps a strong term to use.” Make your mind up! – page 13
David Lloyd George was clearly busy in his new munitions post, offering a certificate with his signature to everyone enrolling as a voluntary munition worker whilst planning to introduce a national register of persons capable of making war munitions, this latter scheme falling to Herbert Asquith to announce in the Commons, presumably as Lloyd George was too occupied trying to prevent strikes and lock-outs in the coal industry to do it himself. Page 9 has all the details

24th June 1915

In Today's Daily Telegraph "The long-expected speech has been delivered. What Minister could do, Lloyd George has done. He held the Commons in thrall for an hour and a half yesterday afternoon, and his brave words should carry far wide.”
Lloyd George’s speech on the Labour for Munitions Bill was the big news for the Telegraph today, given centre stage on page 9 as he made “a great speech” of “straight, courageous words” and a “ringing call to labour,” although as page 8 reveals coal miners were proving resistant to coming under its aegis.
As the banner headline on page 9 proclaimed, the drive to improve munitions was making “England an Arsenal,” again forgetting there is more to the UK than its largest country, which might not impress the “Welsh Wizard.” Not that the paper’s former bête noire fully carried the day, for reading between the lines his choice of attire – “dressed as for holiday, in a summer suit of grey” – was not suitable for the occasion.
Also in today’s paper
- Today’s letter appealing for charitable donations comes from the Factory Girls’ Country Holiday Fund on page 4, with another from St John’s Ambulance on page 12 - Germany encourages its large manufacturers to remove “Made from Germany” from its products and replace it with the name of a neutral company so as to assist sales – page 8. “The Brand of Shame” is how the Telegraph considers Made in Germany to now be - Austria recaptures Lemburg (now the Ukrainian city of Lviv), an event which causes “wild joy” in that country and Germany, although the Russians claim victory in the area after decoying the enemy into a trap, and the Telegraph is at pains to insist the city wasn’t stormed, but taken after a Russian retreat in good order – page 9 - A convicted German spy is shot in the Tower of London – page 9 - Celebrations for the annual charitable Alexandra Day are reported on pages 9 and 10 - Another large batch of gallantry awards on page 13, and the first instalment of military awards from the King’s Birthday honours takes up a fair portion of page 12

23rd June 1915

This morning a firing squad consisting of 8 guardsmen waited patiently at the Miniature Rifle Range in the Tower of London for Carl Frederick Muller, a 58 year old Russian, spying for Germany. Having broken down badly the night before his execution, Carl Frederick Muller had regained enough composers that he walked down the line of the firing party shaking each man’s hand in turn, and saying he bore no animosity for the duty they had to carry out. He was then placed in a chair, which was tied to short stakes driven into the ground; he sat on it quietly, as a Sergeant buckled a leather strap round his body and the back of the chair and then blindfolded him with a cloth. His was instantaneous from the volley of shots fired.

“There was every indication yesterday that the new War Loan will prove a triumphant success.” With a “rush of inquiries by five-shilling investors” and approval for the City of London all seemed set fair for the Government’s new scheme to raise money (pages 9 and 10), with the Telegraph helpfully contributing by providing an article on how to invest at the post office. Envious eyes would probably be cast from Madrid at the news, as the issue of new Treasury Bonds there was reported to be “a complete failure,” precipitating a Cabinet crisis – page 8.
Also in today’s paper
- Another full page of awards for Gallant Conduct in the Field – page 5
- The “Brides in the Bath” trial opens at the Old Bailey – page 7
- The twenty-first birthday of the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VIII, prompts a leader extolling his virtues on page 8 which reads a tad ironically knowing how things would turn out - Trade Unionists provide the Ministry of Munitions with a scheme which provides a “notable advance in the organisation of the skilled labour of the country available for the manufacture of munitions of war” – page 9 - Page 10 has something of a backward-looking feel with an article about the contribution made by Princess Patricia’s Light Infantry over the last 7 months and a Dardanelles despatch dated May 21 from E. Ashmead-Bartlett already overtaken by Compton Mackenzie’s a week earlier

22nd June 1915

“World’s Greatest War Loan.” The Telegraph was not short of hyperbole in so describing the Government’s announcement in the Commons of a loan to raise money for the war.
Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald McKenna in his “first important financial statement” made a “speech which was distinguished alike by its lucidity, its extreme earnestness, and its brevity.” The plans were a bit loose though, as no precise sum is asked for and the loan is for an indefinite amount, although it would not exceed £910 million. Interest would be paid at four and a half per cent, which if the full amount cited was eventually raised would mean over £40 million pained to the subscribers, a serious sum of money. The State was given an option of repaying it in 1925, but if not it had to be repaid in 1945, although given what would happen by then one suspects that never turned out to be an option.
The scheme received praise in a leader on page 8 – “There is a breadth and boldness about the great financial scheme … that will amply satisfy those who were hoping for a real stroke of statesmanship in connection with the new War Loan.”
Reports from the city concluded this was going to be a popular issue, and the General Federation of Trade Unions gave its seal of approval as well. Page 9 has all the news on the loan.
Also in today’s paper - German intrigues to ensure a friendly government in Greece are reported on page 9 - The reports on the fighting in Galicia appear to accept that the Austro-German forces are presently in the ascendency – page 9 - Sir John French shows a human side to a bereaved soldier – page 9 - The latest report on conditions for British prisoners of war in Germany is “reassuring” – page 10 - Rudyard Kipling makes a speech at a recruiting meeting in Southport – page 10 - The British Commercial Gas Association has a rather circuitous way of advertising gas circulators in a full-page advert on page

21st June 1915

19th June 1915

The perils of aviation 100 years ago were writ large in today’s Daily Telegraph, as news of the death of Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Warneford, who had shot down a Zeppelin in mid-air (see June 8) and been awarded the Victoria Cross for his efforts was published. Tragically it was not a heroic death in action for the pilot, but “a cruel blow of fate” as a leader lamenting his death on page 8 put it, as a trip with an American magazine writer from an aerodrome near Versailles in a new aeroplane which he was trying was brutally cut short by machine failure; both men either jumped or fell from the falling plane but the writer was found dead on the ground, whilst Warneford died on the way to hospital with “nearly every bone in his body” broken. The story is given centre stage and the banner headline on page 9, with a picture of the deceased aviator on page 3 above one of a gloomy-looking son of Herbert Asquith, injured in the Dardanelles (as has been one of his brothers)
Also in today’s paper
- Page 5 is given over to an advert for the “Greatest summer sale in Barker history.” Clearly being in wartime isn’t a bar to major shopping events
- It sounds as if the war is really hotting up across Europe – page 9’s headlines include “Fierce battle in Flanders”, “Great Battles in Galicia” and “Severe fighting” on the Italian front.
- Did you know “Food” may be a somewhat controversial term? According to an article about the formation of a committee to look at “maintaining, and if possible, increasing, the present production of food in England and Wales” on page 9 it is - Two Glaswegian iron merchants are sentenced to six months’ imprisonment and £2,000 fines for supplying the enemy with war material in today’s length court report on pages 9 and 10 - Today’s examples of German barbarity – reversing bullets so that the broad base hits first, poisoning a stream, and subjecting a hospital to repeated attack in sorties from a cave behind British lines – page 10 - “London did not allow to pass unnoticed the centenary of the famous victory at Waterloo” – page 10, although America seems to have paid it as much attention as anybody judging from the reports - Noted cricketer K. S. Ranjitsinhji presents his Staines residence as a hospital for wounded officers – page 10 - If you thought flappers were a post-war phenomenon think again – Mrs. Eric Pritchard refers to the “so-called flapper of today” in her fashion column which deals with “simple summer clothes for young people” although it helps if you have a Japanese silk supplier – page 12

18th June 1915

It was the centenary of the Battle of Waterloo, but the current situation meant that commemorations of the battle could not be celebrated as might have been expected a year earlier; indeed save for a leader on page 8 and a Zam-Buk advert on page 11 referencing the battle there is nothing specifically about it in the paper.
As the leader noted, the country was “in a position at once strangely different from, and yet in essential features similar to, the General European situation on June 18, 1815.” After all, “once more … our country and the best of Europe are ranged against a cruel and autocratic despotism which threatens the liberties of the world. Once more we are fighting a tyrant whose success means the ruin of all fair hopes of liberty, and a crushing defeat to civilisation.” Only this time, whereas in 1815 it was Britain and Prussia leading an allied force against the French under Napoleon, this time for Prussia read France and for Napoleon read the Kaiser.
To celebrate the occasion a Rudyard Kipling poem entitled “France” is reprinted on page 10. On page 6 a correspondent unearths a letter from Sir Robert Peel after a trip to Paris in 1815 which doesn’t portray the Prussians in a good light, and argues they’ve regressed over the intervening century, but that’s about it for the epochal battle on its centenary – the war had truly overridden the anniversary.
Also in today’s paper
- Statistics show 1,115 people died on the railways in 1914, 16 fewer than the previous year – page 4. A further 80 died on the premises of railway companies. - “An old playgoer” responds to the article the previous day about theatres in wartime by calling for the legalisation of smoking in such premises – page 6. On page 11 it is the turn of music to have similar treatment - Two columns of page 7 are given over to the start of the season in British Spas. A leader on page 8 expresses confidence in those running them to rise to the opportunity provided by most foreign spas being effectively out of bounds, British doctors meeting the needs of their patients, as well as “British waters, British climate and British food.” - Italian Alpini troops conduct another “brilliant exploit” on page 9 - The Telegraph’s parliamentary correspondent predicts Lloyd George’s upcoming munition plans on page 9, whilst Glasgow workers come back from the front where they have been shown at first-hand the need for shells. - Similarly the City Editor looks forward to the Government’s introduction of a war loan – page 9 - German “ravings” over the Karlsruhe air raid are printed on page 10, although the Telegraph is blind to the fact they are little different from its denunciations of enemy raids. The West End of London is threatened with revenge. - Plenty on the fighting in Galicia today, with reports on page 9, Professor Pares’ latest lengthy despatch from Russia on page 11 and Our Military Correspondent analysing the situation next to a map of the area on page 12 - A Major is fined in his absence for striking a bus conductor who’d stopped his wife getting on a bus until all the passengers had got off – page 13. The judge says the major has “absolutely no defence” for what he did

17th June 1915

Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford VC

Just ten short days after having brought down a Zeppelin and being lionised by the British pressand public, Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford VC is killed in an accident while taking an American journalist, (Henry Needham,) for a flight from Buc aerodrome, near Paris.  At 2,000 feet the right hand wings collapses leading to a catastrophic failure of the airframe and puts the aircraft into a spin. Falling to about 200 feet, the plane turns upside down and to the horror of the onlookers, Warneford and Needham are thrown out and fall to the ground. Needham is killed instantly Warneford is pronounced dead an hour later, he was just 23 years old. He was buried at Brompton Cemetery, London on 21st June 1915 in a ceremony attended by thousands of mourners..

Today's Daily Telegraph forgets the fighting, in one of the longest articles in today’s paper can be found on page 11, where a whole column is given over to consideration of the wartime role of theatres. Having to face a sentiment that to indulge in forms of amusement at such a time is improper, or that to be seen attending when in mourning would be considered unbecoming conduct, yet alone the loss of potential theatregoers to the armed forces, they were struggling, but the paper argued that “there is something to be said … for the managers’ right to the support of the public.” However it would help if the “dearth of good, or at least attractive plays” was addressed, and there was an argument that “lighter forms of plays” were best suited to the current situation, taking the example of what was proving successful at the music-halls. As the Telegraph was continuing to review plays since the war began it was clear it still considered them an acceptable form of entertainment and so perhaps it is not surprising that it should argue for their continuance. Will subsequent reviews bear out the arguments here though?
Also in today’s paper:
- Birmingham tram conductors threaten to go on strike rather than work with women, forcing the authorities to cancel plans to use the latter – page 6. A local Alderman condemns them as “small-minded, unpatriotic, and blind to their country’s interests.”
- The Turkish losses at Gallipoli are claimed to be causing despair and anti-German sentiment in Constantinople – page 8
- The “British advance from Ypres” given the banner headline on page 9 doesn’t seem to advance to much in Sir John French’s latest despatch on the same page, whilst you can compare and contrast it with a German version underneath. Likewise you can compare Russian, German and Austrian accounts of the Galician fighting on the same page. In both cases the Telegraph unusually doesn’t really denigrate the enemy accounts - The Lord Mayor of London launches a fund to aid the sick and wounded of the war, and £88,000 is pledged to it by the end of the inaugural meeting – page 9 - A French paper claims half of the German and Austrian men “called to the colours” are killed, wounded or prisoners - page 10 - A Russian surgeon-major considers the rifle to be but an “infantryman’s toy” besides the heavy guns used in the war – page 10

16th June 1915

To see today’s 1915 Daily Telegraph in PDF format click here

will go on to be awarded the Victoria Cross on the 29th April 1917 at Gavrelle, France. In a piece titled ‘I charge,’ Alfred Pollard gives an insight and detailed description off what it was like, to go “over the top”The incident occurred on the 15/16 June 1915.

In today's Daily Telegraph “The situation in the Gallipoli Peninsula has developed into trench warfare.” Getting on for two months after the initial landings, and with little news of concrete progress, the Press Bureau had to admit that the troops had got bogged down in their attack. But never mind, for “the Turks have evinced a great respect for our offensive,” their own “has sensibly weakened” and “the situation is favourable to our forces,” so all’s well and good then, or so they’d like you to think.
See page 8 for this latest update and Allied spin, while on page 9 novelist Compton Mackenzie, of Whisky Galore fame, provides the latest journalistic despatch from the area, due to Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett losing the whole of the kit in the sinking of HMS Majestic and having to return to England to obtain another outfit.
Talking of Ashmead-Bartlett, buried on page 11 is a tale from a survivor of the Majestic’s sinking about his “gamble with death” evacuating the ship; it is a tad surprising more isn’t made of this considering he’s a Telegraph reporter.
Also in today’s paper
- The German account of an Allied air raid on Karlsruhe seems quite tame compared with how the Telegraph reports in a similar fashion attacks by them – page 8 - Russia’s campaigns seem to revolve at present around rivers, as the latest news is of a battle on the San River in Galicia and the Windau River in the Baltic Provinces – page 9 - Herbert Asquith reveals Government expenditure is averaging £2,680,000 a day – page 9 - On the labour front a court case in Glasgow tells of a workman assaulted for producing more shells than some of his workmates – page 10. Next to it South Wales miners threaten a strike over wages. - An “All-Women Matinée” is staged for charity at the Haymarket Theatre – page 10 - The 700th anniversary of the sealing of Magna Carta is commemorated – page 11

15th June 1915

Frederick William Campbell V.C.

On the day of his 48th Birthday, during the Battle of Givenchy, Lieutenant (acting-Captain) Campbell was tasked with his two machine-gun crews to support an attack on a German defensive position known as "Stony Mountain". At two minutes to six a mine exploded close to the first German trench, and, while the air was still full of dust and smoke, Campbell and his men raced across the seventy-five yards of No Man's land under intense fire.

Only one gun and a part of its crew reached the German front trench, as they pressed on towards "Stony Mountain" further casualties had reduced their number to two, Campbell and a Private Vincent an ex- lumberman from Bracebridge Canada; Having reached a block in the trench Campbell tried to set up a machine gun position but was unable to find a suitable base for the gun, so Vincent offered to support it on his broad back; From this position the two men successfully held back a German counter-attack.

The location secured the two men began to retire, when Campbell was hit in the leg his right thigh bone shattered. At No. "7" Stationary Hospital, Boulogne, his wound turned septic and four days later Frederick William Campbell died. For his actions he was awarded the Victoria Cross, his citation reads:

For most conspicuous bravery on 15th June, 1915, during the action at Givenchy. Lt. Campbell took two machine-guns over the parapet, arrived at the German first line with one gun, and maintained his position there, under very heavy rifle, machine-gun and bomb fire, notwithstanding the fact that almost the whole of his detachment had then been killed or wounded. When our supply of bombs had become exhausted, this officer advanced his gun still further to an exposed position, and, by firing about 1,000 rounds, succeeded in holding back the enemy's counter-attack. This very gallant officer was subsequently wounded, and has since died.

In today's Daily Telegraph another day of Allied success in the news pages. Leading the way is “Dashing attack by French troops” on page 8, giving another positive tale at Gallipoli, whilst page 9 has a Belgian success on the Yser Canal and “a further success” for the Italians with the capture of two passes. With all these positive reports, no wonder the Special Correspondent in Petrograd on page 9 reports that “Instructed opinion is inclined to optimism with regard to the general situation in Galicia” given all you tend to hear from there and elsewhere. We have the advantage of hindsight and know that despite all this the reality is a war of attrition that still has over 40 months to go, but could people then start being cynical about all these article with the fact despite all that was claimed, there was little news of any overwhelming victory or even an advance?
Also in today’s paper
- The Secretary of the General Federation of Trade Unions reports that neatly a million workers have higher wages since the war started – page 4
- “Interesting work” in Essex as a “Navvy” battalion are digging trenches in the country – page 4. One presumes it is to familiarise themselves with the work needed to do so, as nowhere is it actually stated why they are doing it. The article also reveals that officers are affected by the lack of motor cars.
- Having launched an appeal to build temporary buildings for soldiers the previous year (see November 13, 19 and 27), the YMCA now makes one for donations so it can build accommodation for workers in munition areas, in a full-page advert describing it as “A Great Social Call” on page 5. Page 10 has a news article to reinforce the appeal - Another gymkhana is staged by Indian soldiers (see June 1), this time for King Albert of Belgium (page 9), and is lauded by a leader article on page 8 - First aid in the air enables a wounded pilot to get home safely – page 9. The same article reveals a “weird letter” thrown into the trenches by the Germans - Ramsay MacDonald speaks for the first time in the House of Commons since August the previous year, telling a hostile house that letters containing his anti-war opinions sent to bereaved relatives of fallen soldiers are nothing to do with him – page 9

14th June 1915

Another good day all round for the Allies if you believe everything that is reported about them in today's Daily Telegraph. All was still faring excellently for the Italians, and we had two reporters, W. T. Massey and A. Beaumont, on hand to report on this (page 9). The French meanwhile could boast of the capture of a railway station (same page) whilst “the Russian victory … on the Dniester was of a much more emphatic character than from the first reports appeared to have been the case” even though the Germans were reportedly back on the attack (page 9) and we admit on page 10 that “none but the most meagre descriptions” of this conflict had reached the West. Add in the usual optimistic outlook at Gallipoli despite “the successes of the enemy,” this time from a Reuter’s correspondent on page 7, and it was still the case that readers of the Telegraph could surely only be confident about the final outcome for Britain as well as her dominions, colonies and allies.
Also in today’s paper
- The Mayor of Southend-on-Sea writes to counter rumours that those in the town are likely to be called upon to leave it at 48 hours’ notice, and stresses it is still open for tourism – page 4
- Our Special Correspondent writes of “Picturesque scenes” from the Turkish side of the Dardanelles from the site of Troy – page 8
- The first batch of volunteers from workers in the City of London do their first stint helping at Woolwich Arsenal – page 9 - Dunrobin Castle, home of the Duke of Sutherland, suffers a serious fire – page 9 - The New York World publishes a letter from a former M.P. who spied for the Central Powers – page 11. “Astonishing” and “astounding” are how the Telegraph describes this

12th June 1915

William Angus (VC)Sometimes an incident occurs that transcends all logic, those who believe in God; call it a miracle! Such an event occurred during a night sortie on a German barricade near Givenchy. A raiding party lead by Lieutenant Martin was discovered and immediately came under fire, when a mine was exploded; all those involved returned back to the British front line except Lieutenant Martin, who had been wounded, stunned and half-buried by the explosion, and lying close to the high parapet of the German trench. With the light of dawn Lieutenant Martin’s position was evident to both the British and German trenches, and so began a grim struggle for the life or death of the officer.

A reckless charge by British volunteers to rescue the fallen officer was dismissed as suicidal, but one man setting out after dark may stand a better chance. To a man, an entire company stepped forward and Corporal William Angus was selected for the do or die task.
The immediate responsibility for the British was to keep Lieutenant Martin alive until nightfall. The British manned their trenches, checked any movement by the Germans that might be aimed at the Lieutenants safety. One periscope after another was raised over the German parapet, only to be shattered by British fire before it could be used. Meantime, however, the officer's danger was imminent, his strength was failing, the heat of the blazing sun was scorching, and the tension became unendurable. Corporal William Angus decided it was now or never, an Officer pointed out that if he left now “Death seemed certain.” William Angus replied, “It doesn't much matter, sir, whether sooner or later." And with that he clambered over the top.
Seventy yards of open ground, destitute of cover, lay between the opposing trenches, and was swept by the enemy's fire. Covered by a heavy fire from his comrades, with great skill and coolness Corporal William Angus wormed his way, flat on the soil, and undiscovered by the enemy until they heard him at the side of the wounded officer. He placed a flask of brandy to his lips, and there they lay, gathering strength for the return journey. The opportunity came with a bomb thrown towards them by the Germans, which raised a cloud of dust and smoke. Through the cloud the two men were seen staggering forward, the corporal supporting the officer. As it cleared off, fresh bombs were thrown, and the two men stumbled through an inferno engulfed in fresh clouds. Rifle-fire punctured the clouds and the men were seen to fall, and rise and fall again. The Lieutenant rose first, and was now in front. The corporal, heroic to the last, staggered off at an angle, drawing the enemy's fire as he made for a different part of the British trench. A dozen bombs burst round him. He fell, but rose again; and soon both men were being helped over the parapet. They were conveyed to hospital, where it was found that Corporal Angus had received forty wounds.

The Daily Telegraph details the latest American Note to Germany are published, and page 9 today has the latest stage in this on going diplomatic issue which was generating so much newsprint, accompanied by a leader on the subject on page 8. Having read it the paper could not understand why erstwhile Secretary of State W J Bryan had felt compelled to resign, and it had plenty of company in this, as reports from New York saw him severely criticised by his countrymen for his dramatic departure, whilst President Woodrow Wilson’s stock continued to remain relatively high.
Also in today’s paper
- A rather ironic juxtaposition on page 3 as pictures of Herbert Asquith’s visit to the front showing him with various generals sit among the casualty roll of honour
- The summonses against the Times over its publication over a letter concerning the French army (see June 1) are dismissed – page 4
- A map on page 6 shows where the fighting in Galicia, which is proclaimed as a Russian victory, is taking place. Whilst it is true that the fighting is on the Austrian side of the border, it equally doesn’t give the impression that in spite of all the victories Russia has claimed here, they have made serious inroads into Austrian territory; it looks like the river Dniester is proving something of a barrier to them, even if page 9 claims victories there - The Purple Cross Service, which aids wounded horses, gives an update of its progress at a meeting reported on page 6 - The food situation is clearly one that is interesting the paper; after the articles two days previously a good portion of page 7 is given over to this. - The fun and games of running the army’s field post office is detailed on page 7, not helped by calling the force sent to fight the British Expeditionary Force, the middle word of which having a multitude of spellings on the envelopes - As agricultural labour could be less available than usual for the forthcoming hay harvest, it is agreed to release some soldiers to assist – page 9 - King Victor Emanuel III of Italy must have been busy if A Beaumont is to be believed on page 9, as he writes that the King “has now visited all parts of the long frontier line.” - The report on the “Battle of the Labyrinth” on page 10 goes on to report on the terrible trench left by unburied German corpses - The women’s page (page 12) has an article which after a rant against able young men who have not joined up, looks at how sports and recreation grounds are less busy due to men enlisting. It is still a bit disconcerting though to see the Polytechnic in Regent Street proudly claim that of the 1900 on the register over 800 have joined up and over 400 are already casualties either killed, wounded or missing, which sounds an appalling attrition rate

11th June 1915

 In todays' Daily Telegraph a captain in the Worcestershire Regiment has to pay £250 in damages to a music-hall artist for breach of promise after breaking off their engagement – page 3. The prosecution gives a high estimation to his love letters
- Germany appears to be not only using Zeppelins in the air, as page 7 has news of the destruction of one of their Parseval airships - A lance-corporal in the London Rifle Brigade tells a “thrilling story of the terrible experiences he has undergone in the trenches” on page 7, although he found it “wonderful” at the same time and considers that it would have been an “honour to die” alongside his fellows - E. Ray Lankester writes on page 7 to publicise a forthcoming lecture at the Royal Society on “Flies, Lice and other Minor Horrors of War” - The Telegraph sarcastically quotes the “ill-informed comment” in Germany on the resignation of W.J. Bryan, in what is surprisingly the only article about the subject today (page 8). Was it really in a better position to comment itself the day before though? - Two British torpedo boats are sunk by a German submarine, and this is deemed the news most worthy of the banner headline on page 9. Over the page on page 10 more trawlers fall foul to the U-boat menace. - Italy announces the capture of the Austrian naval town of Monfalcone – page 9

10th June 1915

The torpedo boats TB10 & TB12  are torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine in the North Sea. 

In todays' Daily Telegraph the impact of Germany’s U-boat policy on American passengers and shipping has led to diplomatic issues between the two countries, which have been detailed at some length on the pages over the Telegraph over the previous month or so, and the fraught relations between the two countries claimed its biggest scalp as the Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, felt compelled to resign. As he explained in his resignation letter he was unable to agree with the contents of the latest Diplomatic Note to Germany on the subject, and the differences he had with President Wilson were such that he felt he could no longer remain a remember of the latter’s administration (page 9). Not knowing yet what is in the latest Note a leader on page 8 on the subject was forced to speculate as to the cause of the disagreement, whilst expressing confidence that “the United States will be guided by the highest considerations, and, in strict accordance with its precedents in the past, will support those ‘rules of fairness, reason, justice and humanity,”
Also in today’s edition
- Over a whole column on page 5 is given to the current situation regarding food. Headlines talk of melons at 25s each, charm of the strawberry and neglected asparagus. A similar amount of page 7 is given over to the harvest prospects
- The recent London tram strike led to a loss of £50,000 in two weeks – page 5
- A letter from a Canadian soldier to his sister tells of the fighting at the Second Battle of Ypres from his perspective – page 7 - Diners at the Houses of Parliament will have to pay more for their lunches and dinners – page 8. The heart bleeds… - The article on how London City workers are looking to assist munitions production is followed up today on page 9 with an application form - Italy loses an airship after a raid on Austria – page 10. Terming it a dirigible to oppose it to the demon Zeppelin (to which it is favourably compared), the Telegraph’s reporting is naturally far kinder to an allied country’s air raids than it is on German ones, or indeed another Austrian raid on Venice lower down the page

9th June 1915

Vice Admiral David Richard Beatty is given the tragic news of the death of his brother Captain Richard George Beatty who has died on service in India at the age of 34.

In today' Daily Telegraph the previous day’s paper may have concentrated on a recruiting campaign in London, it was the turn of those doing their bit on the home front to feature in today’s paper, with two articles about how workers were assisting the manufacture of munitions on page 9. Firstly we have a scheme initiated by a chartered accountant for city businessmen to devote the Sundays to the manufacture of munitions at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, followed by “the patriotic salesmen of Smithfield” closing their market two hours early so that they can then spend the rest of the time engaged in munitions work. It makes something of a contrast with the continuous tales of strikes, with operative spinners in Manchester the latest to go on strike over non-payment of a war bonus (same page).
Also in today’s paper
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s final Sherlock Holmes novel The Valley of Fear, is reviewed on page 4. “Not a particularly good one” considers our reviewer
- Another leader on the part women are playing in wartime on page 8 steers perilously close to condescension
- A heatwave at home (page 9) would appear to be generating demand for cold salads, if the article “Weather and Food” on page 7 is anything to go by - The King acts quickly to reward the pilot who shot down a Zeppelin mid-air (see previous day) as it is announced that this “Zeppelin wrecker” is awarded the Victoria Cross – page 9 - The decision of the new coalition Government to pool the salaries of members is the latest subject of attack from the backbenches (page 9), much to the indignation of our leader writer on page 8

8th June 1915

King Constantine I suffering from pneumonia and pleurisy was said to be close to death and received the last rites when the holy ikon of the Virgin and Child from the shrine of Panayia Evanghelistria was brought to his bedside from Tinos in the Cyclades. Miraculously, he recovered, and his wife, Queen Sophie, presented a large sapphire to enrich the ikon.

Major William Henry Johnston VC was killed by a sniper on 8th June 1915 near Zwarteleen in the Ypres Salient, just four days after being appointed Brigade Major of 15 Brigade. He had seen action at the retreat from Mons and the battles of Aisne, the Marne, Neuve Chapelle and the first and second battles of Ypres. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for is actions on September 14th 1914.

In todays' Daily Telegraph with what were becoming regular Zeppelin raids causing death and damage (another one reported today on the East Coast leaves 2 dead and 40 injured) anything that put the boot on the other foot was bound to be applauded, and so news of the shooting down of one of the airships, and a raid on a shed, was the big news of the day on page 9. This was considered by the Telegraph to be “the most successful and brilliant exploit yet carried out by the British Naval Flying Corps during the war,” which by now had plenty of competition; just how many times have there been “brilliant” exploits reported so far, or great acts of daring and gallantry. Perhaps it is too much to expect the authorities to use a thesaurus to mix the reports up, but the overuse of some words does run the grave danger of them becoming hackneyed, if they aren’t actually already.Another recruiting effort is launched in London – page 3, with an accompanying picture - The Suffragettes now look to assist needy East Londoners have time in the country to help their health – page 4 - Another example of what looks like a report but turns out to be otherwise on page 4, where the advantages of employing Boy Scouts in the office are extolled - The British Fire Prevention Committee gives advice as to measures to be taken against incendiary bombs – page 7 - The Russians report that the Germans appear to be viewing their use of poison gas as some form of divine dispensation – page 9 - The Bill for the creation of the Ministry of Munitions is put to the Commons, but the suggestion there is no need to debate it does not got down well, whilst the Government has to allay fears it will be a back-door means of introducing “compulsion” – page 9.

7th June 1915

A hundred years ago today the first Naval Aviation Victoria Cross will be awarded to Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Warneford serving with the Royal Naval Air Service. His exploits of being the first British airman in bring down a Zeppelin (LZ.37) would make headline news around the world, but within ten days of being thrust into the limelight; Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Warneford would be dead.
On 17 June 1915, Warneford received the award of Légion d'honneur from the French Army Commander in Chief, General Joffre. Following a celebratory lunch, Warneford travelled to the aerodrome at Buc in order to ferry an aircraft for delivery to the RNAS at Veurne. Having made one short test flight, he then flew a second flight, carrying an American journalist, Henry Beach Newman, as passenger. During a climb to 200 feet, the right-hand wings collapsed leading to a catastrophic failure of the airframe. Accounts suggest that neither occupant was harnessed and were both thrown out of the aircraft, suffering fatal injuries. In the case of Newman, death was instantaneous.Warneford died of his injuries on the way to hospital.
He was buried at Brompton Cemetery, London on 21 June 1915 in a ceremony attended by thousands of mourners.

This is Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Warneford official report dated 8th June 1915

 I left Furnes at 1:00 am on 7th June 1915 on Morane No. 3253 under orders to look for Zeppelins and attack the Berchem St Agathe Airship Shed with six 20 lb bombs.On arriving at Dixmude at 1:15 am, I observed a Zeppelin apparently over Ostend and proceeded in chase of the same. I arrived at close quarters a few miles past Bruges at 1:50 am and the Airship opened heavy maxim fire, so I retreated to gain height and the Airship turned and followed me. At 2:15 am it stopped firing and 2:25 am I came behind, but well above the Zeppelin; height than 11,000 feet, and switched off my engine to descend on top of him. When close above him at 7,000 feet altitude I dropped my bombs, and, whilst releasing the last, there was an explosition which lifted my machine and turned it over. The aeroplane was out of control for a short period, went into a nose dive, but control was regained. I then saw the Zeppelin was on the ground in flames. The joint on my petrol pipe and pump from the back tank was broken and at about 2:40 am I was forced to land in enemy territory to repair my pump. I made preparations to set the machine on fire, but was not observed, so was able to affect a repair of the aircraft and after considerable difficulty in starting my engine single handed, was able to take off and head in a South Westerly direction. I tried several times to find my whereabouts but was unable to do so, so I eventually landed and discovered I was at Cape Gris Nez, where I was given petrol by French soldiers. When the weather cleared I was able to proceed and arrived back at my Aerodrome about 10:30 am.

In todays' Daily Telegraph The fighting in the Dardanelles took centre stage, with the announcement that after fierce fighting 500 yards had been taken (page 9), whilst a special correspondent was able to report from the Turkish side on the same page; one wonders quite how he was able to accomplish this being a writer for an enemy power. One person who was confident that the Dardanelles campaign would end successfully was its chief mover Winston Churchill, in the course of a speech to his constituents at Dundee (page 10). This speech saw Churchill become the latest government member to be lionised in a leader (page 8) although considering the notorious anti-Socialist speech he would make almost exactly 30 years later (when he claimed the Labour Party would end up introducing some sort of Gestapo in Britain) it seems rather surprising to see him suggesting the nation should be “socialised.” - A wounded bandsman gives a sworn testimony that he witnesses dead soldiers who had been crucified by the Germans – page 6 - A week after the Zeppelin raid on London, or “the neighbourhood of London” was is claimed in the official announcement on page 9, the death toll is stated to be 6


6th June 1915

Second Lieutenant George Raymond Dallas Moor
The youngest recipient of the Victoria Cross deed of valour occurred today. George Raymond Dallas Moor was just an 18 year old 2nd Lieutenant serving with the 2nd Battalion the Hampshire Regiment at Gallipoli. On the morning of the 6th June 1915 on what would become the third and final day of the third Battle of Krithia, a fierce counter attack by Turkish troops had ruptured part of the allied line. A detachment of the Australian Infantry which had lost all its officers abandoned its position and was “rapidly retiring”. Realizing the danger that such a breach posed to the rest of the line, Second Lieutenant George Raymond Dallas Moor runs back some 200 yards and confronts the fleeing men, restores order and leads the men back to the line and recaptures the lost trench. His citation reads

 “For most conspicuous bravery and resource on the 5th June, 1915, during operations South of Krithia, Dardanelles. When a detachment of a battalion on his left, which had lost all its officers, was rapidly retiring before a heavy Turkish attack, 2nd Lieutenant Moor immediately grasping the danger to the remainder of the line, dashed back some two hundred yards, stemmed the retirement, led back the men, and recaptured the lost trench. This young officer who only joined the Army in October, 1914, by his personal bravery and presence of mind saved a dangerous situation”

An eyewitness account of the incident reads:

 "There was an anxious moment during a vigorous counter-attack by the Turks, when it looked as if they had broken through at a particularvulnerable point on our right at the junction of two battalions each commanded by a second lieutenant. One of these officers, 2nd Lieutenant R. G. Moor of the 2nd Hants, and then in command of his battalion, seeing the disorderly retirement in the sector of the battalion on his left, which amounted to panic for want of officers to control them, and realizing the dangers of his own battalion, with great presence of mind, and regardless of the danger, rushed across the open, exposed to fire for 400 yards, and succeeded in heading the mob. He had to use severe measures to bring them to their senses, even shooting the leaders of the panic. He then collected the troops in a hollow, organized them, and led them to the counter-attack. He regained the lost trenches, driving out the Turks, organized the defences, and when reporting by telephone what had occurred he utterly collapsed from the strain. This was not surprising, when it is realized he had only left Cheltenham College the previous September."

There is no definitive proof or historical evidence in the allegation that 2nd Lieutenant Moor shoots or killed any of the fleeing men, but the controversy over the incident still rages today and of course 2nd Lieutenant Moor is no longer here to defend himself. However there is evidence to attest to his bravery. Promoted to Lieutenant, Moore received two further citations:

Military Cross citation: (gazetted 2 December 1918) "Lieutenant George Raymond Dallas Moor, V.C., Hampshire Regiment. For conspicuous gallantry and skill. He carried out a daylight reconnaissance all along the divisional front in face of heavy machine-gun fire at close range, in many places well in front of our foremost posts."

Bar to Military Cross (gazetted 29 July 1919) "On October 20th, 1918, near to Pijpestraat, the vanguard commander was wounded and unable to carry on. Owing to heavy shelling and machine-gun fire, the vanguard came to a standstill. Lieut. Moor, Acting General Staff Officer, who was reconnoitring the front, noticed this; he immediately took charge, and by his fearless example and skilful leading continued the advance until the objective was reached. He has a positive contempt for danger, and distinguishes himself on every occasion."

George Raymond Dallas Moor VC, MC, & Bar, died of Spanish Influenza at Mouvaux, France, on 3rd November 1918. He is buried in the Y Farm Military Cemetery, Bois-Grenier

5th June 1915

Herbert Asquith had visited the front over the previous week, but although its has been six days’ earlier that he had started his visit, and two days since he finished, it was only today that Perceval Landon revealed details, although oddly it was considered by the paper to be part of his series of articles about life at the front rather than a standalone news one (page 9). There was a standalone one on page 11 as well, making this the major news story in the paper, although the page 9 banner headline concentrated on the fact the French President had sent birthday greetings to King George V! Asquith’s visit also generated a leader on page 8, next to one on Lloyd George, both praising these men who had been such enemies of the paper a year earlier.
Also in today’s paper
- Pride of place on page 3 is given to the fact a Convent school for Belgian refugees has been set up in Surrey
- Russian spin on the recapture of Przemysl is alive and kicking. The assurances of the safety previously given can only be possibly explained as a means to deceive the enemy and facilitate the evacuation of the town (page 9) whilst on page 8 it is dismissed as a “mere incident” that the place was evacuated “for “excellent strategical reasons” and it has “not been captured by the enemy in the sense that it was captured by the Russians”
- Allied positions in Gallipoli are proclaimed to be impregnable in the latest despatch (page 10) whilst they are “as confident as ever of final victory.” How many times have we already heard this? - Mrs Eric Pritchard gives her opinions on “Practical garments for everyday wear” on page 12. For whom?

4th June 1915

Another day where as usual claims of Allied success as taken as face value, with the Turks forced on the retreat in Mesopotamia and a German transport sunk in the Sea of Marmora, whilst anything claimed likewise by the enemy, such as the recapture of Przemysl, is treated with scepticism; indeed “there was no confirmation from Russian sources” the report of this states, as if they were inherently more truthful (page 9). German claims as to their raid on London are dismissed as “wild boastings and speculations” (same page), but the Cologne Gazette does make the pertinent point “From their [the English authorities’] silence we can only suppose that the damage was much worse than appears,” for, unlike other raids where detailed articles and photographs showing the effect of the German attacks were speedily in the paper, there has been a lot less on the London raid (an inquest into two deaths from it on page 10 again leaving many details unreported) making you wonder why this is the case.
Also in today’s paper
- Although George V commanded that his birthday was not to be celebrated London dockers refuse to work because they won’t be getting paid double, as happens when it was – page 3
- You can always tell when the Telegraph considers a legal case particularly juicy as coverage of it is extensive. Such is the case on page 5 with the “extraordinary story of an infatuation of a wealthy lady of 76 for a man 30 years her junior” as part of a legal action over two pearl necklaces
- Knight, Frank & Rutley advertise several sizeable estates for auction on page 5. Not only does the Amesbury Abbey estate contain Stonehenge (see June 1) but much of the town as well, - The Suffragettes look to set up a home to care for “war babies” – page 6 - Lloyd George makes a speech on munitions, which is related at some length on pages 9 and 10 - The Germans suppress the Belgian Red Cross Committee – page 11 - The French cherry crop exported to Britain is next to nothing, whilst the few that do arrive are “for the most part in deplorably bad condition,” but on the other hand there is a boom in bananas – page 12. Funnily enough an advert proclaiming they are a nutritious as meat is above this article

3rd June 1915

It has been noticeable that whilst Allied official notices are happy to boast of enemy losses, they are always notably more reticent over those of their own. For example page 9 today talks of an estimated 100,000 Turkish losses in the Gallipoli campaign, but from the sound of the fighting reported in an article above it seems barely conceivable that Allied losses are considerably lighter. Across the page the fighting in the “Labyrinth” south-east of Neuville 450 prisoners are claimed, but again no hint of whether there were Allied casualties. Admittedly below the French admit to 3,200 casualties in recent fighting, but claim two-thirds of these are slightly wounded, and they can set it against a claim of 2,600 killed and 3,100 taken prisoner. Add to this the publishing of extracts from a deceased German officer’s diary by the French, which provides “the first absolute evidence that the German fighting instinct is weakening,” or so they claim (page 8) and there is no slackening in the rosy hue given to reports as the war goes into its eleventh month.
Also in today’s paper
- The entirety of page 5 and part of page 6 is given over to the recipients of gallantry awards
- The Government publishes its compensation scheme for those killed on merchant shipping by hostile action – page 7
- The “Graphic Story” of the sinking of H.M.S. Triumph on page 9 doesn’t seem to meet up to the description, dealing with it in a mere six paragraphs - Lord Kitchener is appointed a Knight of the Garter in the King’s Birthday Honours – page 9

2nd June 1915

In today's Daily Telegraph the Zeppelin raid over London reported the previous day was clearly more substantial than the initial reports suggested, as more details emerge on page 9 today, with the news that “about ninety bombs, mostly of an incendiary character” were dropped “in various localities not far distant from each other,” a vague term which gives no clue as to where exactly was affected. Four people were reported killed in a raid which the Germans claimed was a reprisal for the raid on the “open town of Ludwigshafen” aimed at “workshops and docks,” language rather similar to that used by the Allies when talking about their air raids.
Advertisers were quick off the mark in response – the British Dominions General Insurance Company takes out a full-page advert on page 3 to advertise its special aircraft policy, whilst Pyrene fire extinguishers advise buying their product on page 5, as do Kyl-Fyre on page 11.
Also in today’s paper
- The third and final part of the Brazilian President’s message to congress appears on page 6, and contains all you’ll ever need to know about the country’s economy at the time
- Serious fighting is taking place around Przemsyl, with the Russian version of events in the left-hand column of page 9, and the Austro-German one on the right - Turkish prisoners give an impression of their troops being badly mauled at Gallipoli – page 9 - Emmeline Pankhurst gives her views on women and war service on page 10 - A former military doctor suggests men who have served and are medically unfit to carry on doing so should be able to wear a badge to denote this fact – page 10

1st June 1915

If one of the country’s most iconic monuments was up for sale today, you’d expect it to be headline news with plenty of media coverage. How different it is in today’s Daily Telegraph, which contains the news that Stonehenge is up for sale, as part of the Amesbury Abbey estate. The article considers that this news is “enough to rouse the envy of all American millionaires who are bitten by the craze for acquiring antiques. Here is the oldest of our temples for sale.” However, little of the masses of research that has been done into the stone circle had been done by then, for the article states that no one knows its age, although it could be nearly 4,000 years old (it is in fact older) and quotes the old belief of it being a Druidical site. Rather worrying is the fact that although “it is believed that steps will be taken to protect Stonehenge in the interests in the nation” and that any American purchasers would not be able to transport it across the Atlantic, but it is not confirmed, leaving that hideous idea still a possibility. And yet all this is covered in just two paragraphs on page 6!
Also in today’s paper
- The Times is prosecuted under the Defence of the Realm Act over its publication of a letter about the French army – page 5
- An officer of the Royal Naval Air Service trumpets its contribution to the fighting in German South-West Africa (now Namibia), but not in the air, in armoured cars – page 6
- Another day, yet another strike over a war bonus, this time Blaenavon Steel Works and Collieries – page 6. It is extraordinary how many of these there have been, in a definitely lesser-known aspect of the war - The London String Quartet brings back what are described as Pop concerts – page 6, although not as we would know them a century on - The Indians at the front clearly love their sporting activities – after the football match reported on May 25 they now stage a gymkhana several miles behind the line – “perhaps the strangest scene that has been witnessed in Flanders since war broke out” (page 7) - Turkish attacks at Gallipoli are repulsed – page 8. For a change no suggestion is made that there are any Allied advances - Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey has to take leave of absence “in order to rest his eyesight” – page 9, this absence being regretted in a fulsome leader on page 8 - Another example of the banner headline on page 9 overstating things today – “Zeppelins reported over London” it reads, although read below and they have merely reported to have been seen over “certain outlying districts of London” - Talking of outlying districts of London, several open spaces in the suburbs are to be used for hospital purposes – page 10