Gallery Solace - The Great War 1914-1918
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31st December 1915
30th December 1915
29th December 1915
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27th December 1915


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September 2015

30th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph  unsurprisingly the ongoing Battle of Loos dominated the news today, with over half of page 9 and part of page 10 given over to stories relating to the fighting. “One of the most glorious exploits of the British Army” claimed one article, among the usual litany of praises for the efforts of Allied soldiers and dismissal of German claims which ran counter to those of the Allies. Add in the successes for the French (also on pages 9 and 10) and losses for the Germans in the current fighting were now claimed to be 120,000, although there is something of a hint of speculation to this statement.
Also in today’s paper
- A tribunal is asked to consider whether war biscuits count as munitions – page 3
- Companies with warehouses, especially those containing flammable materials, are told to make sure they have someone on the premises at night to deal with incendiary bombs – page 6
- New regulations for lighting in London at night are issued – page 8 - An article on page 8 calls for the need to suppress the activities of night clubs - Its not only in Loos that the British are reported to be experiencing success, as more defeats are inflicted upon the Turks in Mesopotamia – page 9 - An Italian battleship blows up in Brindisi, but “the authorities absolutely exclude any question of the disaster being a foreign outrage” – page 11

29th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph:British Army’s New Successes” runs the banner on page 9 and the reports and headlines suggest all is going well at the Battle of Loos – “Fresh Progress by the British Army,” “Amazing Bombardment,” “German Excuses for Allies’ Victory” and “Brilliant Charges in Mist and Rain.” Certainly Sir John French’s despatch suggests success, with 21 guns and 40 machine guns captured and 3,000 prisoners taken, even if this figure seems lower for a success than the figures trumpeted in other battles prior to this but the German articles cited in the “excuses for Allies’ victory” don’t seem to be accepting a victory at all, merely some advances. Philip Gibbs gives a lengthy account of the opening of the battle in some of the most vivid battle-writing seen yet in the paper from the Western Front on an article which runs over to page 10
Also in today’s paper
- A man is sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Hull after faking a postcard to try and get a well-known local gentleman of German birth interned; “a cunning, mean and malicious act” says the magistrate – page 4
- Sir Edward Grey warns Bulgaria that if it assumes “an aggressive attitude on the side of our enemies” Britain will be “prepared to give to our friends in the Balkans all the support in our power” – page 9

28th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph progress reported on Champagne, around Loos and on the Russian front. It was looking like the start of a good autumn for the Allies if the reports on page 9 and 10 are anything to go by, Also in today’s paper - Sir Robert Baden-Powell praises the discretion of Girl Guides, but isn’t very complimentary about girls in general in doing so – page 4 - A chink in the edifice of the age of steam on the railways as work on the electrification of commuter lines out of Waterloo is almost complete – page 5. Talking of the railways readers can discover about goods traffic problems from a Goods Superintendent on page 6 - A former Belgian subject feels the wrath of the law for photographing a gun station without permission, although his defence argues that “the absolute stupidity of the act … was itself the clearest possible proof that there was no desire to do wrong” – page 5 - D. W Griffith’s celebrated film The Birth of a Nation is reviewed on page 6 - The French success in Champagne leads to an article about the terrain there and the history of fighting in the region on page 7; “think of Salisbury Plain” apparently for the location of the current battle - Success is reported in the campaign for earlier closing of shops, although in this light it is a bit startling to see this defined as not later than 8 o’clock on three nights, 9 o’clock on Fridays and 10 o’clock on Saturdays in London – page 10 - Two articles on page 10 give a rosy view of Italy’s role in the fighting in keeping Austria busy - Advice is given as to what to send as comforts to the men at Gallipoli on page 10 - Accusations in Spain that Germany was plotting to take over Majorca or some other or even all of the Balearic Islands – page 11

27th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph “At last, in the splendid despatches from French and British Headquarters which we publish to-day, the nation has news that will cut at the roots of the rank growth of domestic bitterness which the weary waiting of six months had fostered among us. South of La Bassée, and in the Champagne district, blows have been struck that will sound their echoes round the world and will revive once more in the peoples at home that eager enthusiasm which inaction and hope deferred had also crushed, leaving only the stoical determination to endure and strive to the appointed end.”
France had a “great victory” to report in Champagne, whilst Sir John French could report advances around Loos, in renewed fighting that was apparent in Holland (page 9) but our leader on page 8 quoted above is surely going over the top in its reaction, unless there has really been a spirit of war-weariness in Britain that everyone has been at pains to conceal, for there hasn’t been anything in the pages of the Telegraph to hint at such a thing, which makes the sentiment expressed seem so odd.
Also in today’s paper
- Labour leader Keir Hardie dies – page 7. Given the hostility to Hardie shown by the Telegraph its “regret” at the news seems more like politeness than real sadness at the news
- The Budget’s imposition of taxes on the import of hats leads to a debate over what exactly should be defined as a hat – page 8 - The diplomatic row between the USA and Austria-Hungary continues, as the former insists on the recall of the latter’s Ambassador to it – page 10 - Welsh miners complain about pay, and threaten yet another strike – page 10 - A deputation from the National Advisory Committee on War Output visits the British lines – page 10. Its conclusion that there is a need for more shells will hardly come as any surprise - American newspapers claim 10,000 aeroplanes are being prepared to counter Zeppelin raids on the UK – page 10. The Press Bureau says of this story “responsibility for its accuracy must rest with its publisher”

26th September 1915

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25th September 1915

The third Battle of Artois begins: After four days of bombardment, the 25th September begins with a number of underground explosions under the parapets of the German front line trenches, followed by the release of chlorine gas. By the days end, 9,700 UK soldiers would be dead; the Victoria Cross would be awarded 10 times.

The recipients:
Frederick Henry Johnson
Henry Edward Kenny
Arthur Forbes Gordon
Thapa Kulbir
Daniel Logan Laidlaw
George Allen Maling
George Stanley Peachment
Anketell Moutray Read
Arthur Vickers
Harry Wells
Angus Falconer Douglas-Hamilton

In todays' Daily Telegraph a German who has returned to his country from Britain writes about his experiences in “the most moderate and truthful account of conditions in England to-day that has appeared in the German Press;” he having almost nothing but good to say about this country. Page 10 gives extracts from the two articles he penned. It is quite impressive that the Germans allowed this to be printed.  Also in today’s paper - In response to an appeal by the Medical War Service Emergency Committee, an article on page 6 stresses the duty of patients of those who go off to war service to stay loyal to their doctors - Greece responds to Bulgaria’s mobilisation by ordering one of her own – page 9 - It is confirmed that “treating” in London is to be banned – page 9 - Hints to the public as to lighting conditions in London should be are given on page 9. A blackout is not planned - The women’s page reports the news that Germans have been deprived of their whipped cream (page 12)

24th September 1914

In todays' Daily Telegraph the propaganda war over the Zeppelin raids continued, as the New York World prints an interview with a German Zeppelin pilot about the recent raid of London. Not that the Telegraph was accepting what was being said, for the article republishing this is at pains to point out it isn’t wholly truthful (page 9). Meanwhile a picture of the Royal Palace at Stuttgart on page 3 reveals this building was attacked in reprisal raids for German bombings.
Also in today’s paper
- A new Joseph Conrad novel is reviewed on page 4
- The Lord Mayor of London starts a new fund for Belgian relief – page 8, which a leader article on the same page encourages donations to, even though the Telegraph still has its own Belgium fund running. Meanwhile on page 11 Cheltenham does its bit for the Belgians with a war exhibition
- The ramifications of the Budget were still being felt, with the abolition of the halfpenny postage proving something of a hot potato – pages 9 and 10 - A case in the courts raises the issue as to whether interned aliens can pursue legal actions – page 12

23rd September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph  - A soldier accuses a milliner of robbing him on a night out, only to be lambasted by the judge for being out on the town in the first place – page 3
- The Horticultural Trades Association of Great Britain and Ireland urges nurserymen and seedmen not to heed adverts for Dutch growers in an advert on page 3
- The Port of London announces that it is experiencing “a continuous crescendo” in trade – page 6
- Bulgaria orders the mobilisation of its army as it enters on a state of armed neutrality – page 9 - “General commendation” for the new budget is reported on page 9 and page 10 has more reaction, including British piano makers welcoming the new import duty on musical instruments. “Postcard Publishers” in a letter on page 11 are far from happy about the abolition of halfpenny postage though - The fighting on the Eastern Front is the subject of a number of articles on pages 9 and 10 as Russia claims to be more than holding its own - It’s the turn of the Royal Naval Division to go on a recruiting match through London – page 11

22nd September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph “There is practically universal recognition of the fact that the main business of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the existing circumstances, is to raise money with the minimum of economic disturbance. The new taxes were certain to be burdensome, and they are burdensome. They were certain to hit some sections of the community very heavily, and they do so. They were certain to infringe some sections of the community very heavily, and they do so.” In order to help pay for the steadily rising costs of the war Reginald McKenna’s budget introduced numerous higher taxes, with the announcement of a 40 per cent rise to income tax rates taking the headlines, although notable other measures included a 50 per cent tax on war profits of any business, manufactory or agency, 33 and a third per cent import duties on the likes of cars, hats, watches, musical instruments and cinema films, and abolition of the halfpenny postage (page 9). However, as evinced from the leader on the subject on page 8 and a report by the City Editor on the City of London’s view on page 9, his measures were met with acceptance and some support – McKenna “has apportioned the fresh taxes with ability and impartiality” the latter writes although page 10 has some more hostile reaction from some of the areas affected.. Also in today’s paper - One of H. G. Wells’ lesser-known novels is reviewed on page 4 – “this work is one to be grateful for” says the reviewer - Fourteen lives are lost in “the most disastrous accident that has taken place in the Warwickshire coalfield for over thirty years” – page 7. Also in the industry on the same page, seven miners near Leeds are fined for slacking - “The opening of the Zemstvo and municipal conferences in Moscow yesterday has afforded further proof of the iron determination of the Russian people to carry on the war with redoubled energies until a victorious issue is reached” writes thiere man in Petrograd on page 8 - Stonehenge is sold for £6,600 by a private owner – page 9 - A German submarine is reported by Norwegian fishermen to have torpedoed another one by mistake – page 9 - Princess Zita, wife of the heir to the Austrian throne, is rather short with an Italian prisoner, who is then put on short rations for his disrespectful reaction – page 10 - The Press Bureau issues a collection of the dispatches which proved Austria-Hungary’s complicity in plots in the USA – page 11

21st Saptember 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph it was Budget Day today, so the Telegraph dedicated the centre of page 9 to predicting what would be in Reginald McKenna’s first of the war. So if it is accurate, readers will probably get a sense of déjà vu the following day when no doubt it will be reported all over again!
The major article today was the “stirring” second official despatch from Gallipoli, printed on pages 4 and 5, whilst on page 10 the story of a New Zealand soldier blinded in the fighting there is told
Also in today’s paper
- A dispute over the alteration of meal hours in a munitions firm ends up in court, with seven men fined for their part in it – page 5
- The Army Council announces its plans to a central organisation to co-ordinate the work of those looking to supply winter comforts for the troops – page 8 - Russia claims its retreat in the East is only sending it back to its original plan, and that it is only a superiority in artillery and ammunition is which enabling the Germans to advance – page 9 - Two escaped German officers are recaptured in West Hartlepool, whilst descriptions of two others still at large are issued – page 9 - A special correspondent reports on Coventry’s contribution to the war effort – page 10 - How churches are taking steps to combat Zeppelin raids is the subject of an article on page 11 - A letter on page 11 complains at “a rather intolerant piece of red-tapeism of the postal service”

20th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph the possibility of the introduction of conscription was still proving a hot political topic, and there was more on it in today’s paper. Firstly a letter from David Lloyd George to a constituent on the subject appeared on page 9; by what means the Telegraph acquired with letter isn’t entirely clear. Then below this we have the National Union of Railwaymen heartily endorsing its’ leader J. H. Thomas’ speech on the topic in the Commons (see September 17) and reaffirming its opposition, and on the next column Our Special Correspondent in Rotterdam reports on the bad impression the ongoing controversy over the subject is causing in the Netherlands, opening a new sideline on the whole matter. By now it was becoming clear this was a subject that was going to run and run.
Also in today’s paper
- The Daily Mail responds to the Zeppelin attacks with a fund for readers affected – the “most liberal offers ever made” says an advert on page 3. Its not the only paper advertising in today’s issue – the Guardian is advertising an special China number on page 6
- The Earl of Selborne makes a plea for recruiters not to enlist skilled workers in the agricultural sector, labourers in it not to go on strike and famers not to give their labourers any reason to strike as he delivers an address on how food production should be increased – page 7
- Sir John French praises the Canadian cavalry’s contribution as an “example to the Empire” – page 8 - Another place falls to the Germans on the Eastern Front, “by no means unexpected” by Petrograd – page 9 - More news on Gallipoli on page 9, as the Anzac forces take Hill 60, and E. Ashmead-Bartlett looks at the supplying of the forces in this “most instructive and interesting campaign” - “Treating”, or the buying of drinks for others, is expected to be banned in London – page 9 - Germany pledges to the USA that there will be no more liner sinking incidents, and claims the last one was in fact caused by a cunningly planted British mine – page 9

18th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph the Government decided that the time was ripe to give some details of the effect of the latest Zeppelin raid on London, so that “the real character of these outrages may be the better understood” and “the folly and futility of the raids” emphasised, and an “impartial observer” was asked by the Home Secretary to provide such an account, although no hint is given as to who this personage might be which in a more cynical age leads one to suspect they may not have been as impartial as the Government is making out. The report is unsurprisingly critical of the Germans’ bombing, although its ordering does work somewhat uneasily, starting with a public house being damaged and having a bomb whose only casualty was a bantam cock sit between reports of two others which killed children before ending with one causing nine deaths on a bus. Not that a German Count thought that what our man in Rotterdam described as “the German baby-killers” were responsible for these deaths – it was the British Government who was at fault for allowing civilians to carry on living in London! Page 9 has these articles
Also in today’s paper
- The elder son of King Albert of Belgium is pictured on page 5 at Eton, where he has been enrolled, having previously been in the trenches
- Russia admits to falling back under German attacks, but still claims to have “badly shaken” the enemy – page 8
- Our Special Correspondent writes of a Central Powers plan to open a new front, either in Italy or Serbia – page 9 - Agreement is reached with labour leaders on how to increase the output of munitions – page 9. “It now rests with the rank-and-file to prove their patriotism by endorsing the pledges of their chosen representatives” says the article. Meanwhile Winston Churchill gives two speeches to munition workers (page 10) which impress the paper – “they were short, they were interesting, and they were also characterised by a discretion which may be recommended to the imitation of some of his colleagues in the Cabinet” observes a leader on page 8 - “A Woman” writes on page 10 on the need for co-ordination of women’s war work - An English citizen is arrested in Italy on suspicion of spying for the Central Powers – page 11 - Philip Gibbs’ latest article from the front extols the spirit and good humour of the soldiers, and suggests some of their literary output ought to be preserved in the British Museum for posterity after the war – page 11 - Among the recipes on the women’ page today are some for oysters, as they are “abundant and cheap” – page 12

17th September 1915

To see today’s 1915 Daily Telegraph in PDF format click here

Lieutenant-Commander Martin Eric Nasmith,VC was Gazetted on 25th June 1915

The KING has been graciously pleased to
approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to
Lieutenant-Commander Martin Eric Nasmith,
Royal Navy, for the conspicuous bravery
specified below: —
For most conspicuous bravery in command
of one of His Majesty's Submarines while
operating in the Sea of Marmora. In the
face of great danger he succeeded in destroying
one large Turkish gunboat, two transports,
one ammunition ship and three storeships,
in addition to driving one storeship
ashore. When he had safely passed the most
difficult part of his homeward journey he
returned again to torpedo a Turkish transport.

In todays' Daily Telegraph although the Trade Unions were not always to the Telegraph’s taste during the war, it was prepared to give them or their leaders respect if it felt it was due, and page 7 has an example of this today. As the Commons debated the Vote of Credit, which was in effect a debate of conscription (or compulsion as it was being termed here) J. H. Thomas, leader of the railway workers, made a speech giving a warning as to what would be the effect on his men, and by extension various other industries, should it be introduced. You might have expected the Telegraph to portray this as an obstructive trades unionist, but instead it seems to have been impressed by his speech, noting that “Parliament was listening to once to a Labour leader voicing the live views of a powerful section of the industrial community” and voicing them quite powerfully too if the article is anything to go by, as the only criticism the article gives of Mr Thomas is that expressed by other MPs as he ignited quite a debate, with one Colonel even claiming that “anyone who made a profit out of the war was a traitor”. With David Lloyd George also meeting union leaders over plans to increase output of munitions (page 7) it was quite a day for the brothers today. Also in today’s paper - The cycling column bemoans the state of the roads in what comes across as a rather self-interested start to the article given the wider circumstances of 1915 – page 3 - If you’ve ever wondered whether the authoress of The Scarlet Pimpernel wrote any other works, an advert on page 4 provides the titles of two more, which probably few people have even heard of and even fewer read a century on - A letter on page 5 reveals that convictions for drunkenness among men have gone down over the previous year while those for women have gone up - The Archbishops of Canterbury and York launch an appeal to provide special huts for the troops – page 6 - A Belgian publisher is imprisoned by the Germans for publishing King Albert’s Book there – page 6 - The Admiralty accepts Turkish claims to have sunk a British submarine on the grounds no news has been received from it for almost a fortnight – page 7 - Two Army officers are court-martialled for attending a night club contrary to orders – page 8

16th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph “From the Prime Minister’s statement yesterday it is unpleasantly obvious that the war is costing considerably more than Mr. Lloyd George’s estimate when introducing the 1915-16 budget.” An “eloquent speech by the Prime Minister and a deeply interesting debate” in the House of Commons revealed that the war was costing Britain more and more, and despite the fact that Herbert Asquith’s speech “was cast on reassuring lines” as our City Editor observed “where the money is coming from [to pay the Government’s expenditure] is not easy to see” and he predicted a new loan would have to be called for. And expenditure was going to rise still further as Lloyd George granted a pay rise to munitions workers. Page 9 has all these stories whilst on page 10 possible relief was in sight with talk of loans from America, even if this prospect was “being watched with keen interest by German-American bankers.”
Also in today’s paper
- Two of the three signalmen involved in the Quintinshull rail disaster are sentenced for their part in it whilst a third is acquitted after no evidence is presented against him – page 3
- An acrostic competition in a newspaper creates a dispute which ends up in court – page 3
- Whilst there is little to report on the ground, Sir John French’s latest communiqué reports twenty-one air fights over German lines in the past week – page 9 - The Labour Party signals its opposition to conscription, but Earl Kitchener in the House of Lords reveals that still more men are needed – page 9 - Political strains in Russia over the expected prorogation of the Duma (Parliament) – page 10 - A German actor due to take part in a series of plays in Stockholm is captured in fighting by the French, prompting strenuous efforts to get him returned to take his place in the cast – page 10

15th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph “Parliament met again yesterday, and from the atmosphere of the House of Commons and the temper of nearly all the speeches, it is tolerably certain that the placid, uneventful sittings of the last thirteen months are over.”
Although the Telegraph was clearly expecting a fraught session of Parliament, from the tone of the report on page 9 it didn’t appear to be off to the most exciting of starts – “an uncomfortable feeling is abroad” and “a desultory discussion” for example. But compulsory service was clearly going to be a hot topic, as the letter to Herbert Asquith from 40 MPs on the same page shows.
Also in today’s paper
- The headline “German Advance on the Petrograd Line” on page 8 could almost give the impression the Russian capital is potentially under threat in the latest attack, although the fighting is still far distant
- A mid-air duel in the early morning attracts an audience, reports Philip Gibbs on page 9 - Germany tells Norway it was a Norwegian ship’s fault that it was sunk by a German submarine, with 12 killed, as it hadn’t shown it was neutral – page 9. The Telegraph is predictably unimpressed with this reasoning in a leader on page 8 - British casualties in the first year of the war are reported to be 381,983, with 75,957 of these men killed – page 9 - Yet another coal strike in South Wales is reported on page 9 - Two signalmen and a fireman go on trial in Edinburgh over the Quintinshill rail disaster – page 11

14th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph the plot was thickening over the Central Powers’ intriguing in the United States on page 9, as the New York World revealed more efforts by the Germans to foment strikes in the country, including a £200,000 bribe to longshoremen to induce them to walk out. The Germans believed that with numerous Labour leaders in America being of Irish origin they would be amenable to its cause, but the leaders decided that were they to do Germany’s bidding this would involve “a great breach of neutrality of the United States, and also render their loyalty as American citizens open to suspicion.”
What with this and the sinkings of liners, our Correspondent in New York thought that diplomatically “the prospects are in favour of more Notes, and then more Notes.” No doubt this ongoing diplomatic spat will be covered fully in the pages of the paper.
Also in today’s paper
- A hospital in Wandsworth is helped by artists doing their bit – page 4
- It will probably come as no surprise to readers to see the most extreme demands for wage rises from railwaymen come from those in South Wales given the unrest in the mines there – page 5 - Laurence Jerrold is one of a party of war correspondents given a tour of French munitions factories; they round off their "strenuous tour" with a banquet – page 7 - According to the Admiralty the only damage done on a Zeppelin raid on the East Coast was some telegraph wires down and glass broken, which makes the headline “Sunday’s Outrage” seem a trifle over the top. The Telegraph also seems to be calling them pirates as well as German submarines – page 9. Meanwhile the Royal Navy’s top gunnery expert is appointed to take charge of London’s gunnery defences (same page) - Our Correspondent in Athens reports claims that Turkey’s army cannot continue its resistance beyond the 25th of the month – page 9 - Various men of letters, artists and composers in Russia send an address to the British people – page 10 - The French claim there is agitation in Germany over the prohibition of the sale of alcohol – page 11

13th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph since the war started publishers have not been slow to cash in with related books, and news of two more come in today’s papers. Telegraph writer’s Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett’s Dardanelles despatches come out in “a little volume” (page 7), and his publisher is not slow to hype them in an advert on page 5 – “feats of bravery and endurance with have never been surpassed in the world’s history.” Curiously though it is a book from the paper’s former bête noire David Lloyd George which is given greater editorial prominence, as the paper is able to publish the preface to a collection of his speeches since the war began (page 9), a work which a leader on page 8 advertises as “some of the most effective and compelling utterances made by any statesman since the civilisation of Europe began to suffer this, its great ordeal.” Publishers Hodder & Stoughton must have been delighted by such a description.
Also in today’s paper
- “It has been an outstanding Congress in many ways” reports Our Special Correspondent in Bristol as the Trade Union Congress comes to an end, relegated to an extent on page 4
- The Anti-German League’s meeting in Forest Hill celebrates the closing of the German church there for the duration of the war – page 7

11th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph a bad day for Austria-Hungary on two continents on page 7 today. Firstly, the row over the plot to foment strikes in the United States led to America asking for the Austrian Ambassador to be recalled as being no longer acceptable in the role, much to the pleasure of the local press, although the Telegraph’s leader on page 6 thought he was unfortunate in as much as his German counterpart was guilty of more extensive plotting. Then on the Eastern Front Russia was claiming “further fine successes” in Galicia although Germany was having none of this, claiming the Russian reports were pure invention
Also in today’s paper
- A contrast in the tone of tyre adverts on page 3 – Avon boasts how its tyres will help the army get to Berlin whilst Dunlop claims it is patriotic to buy its types as a British company
- A rather tangled web at the inquest of a corporal who shot a married woman and then himself in a taxicab – page 5
- The allegedly progressive Customs and Excise opts to employ women in a social work capacity – page 6 - Germany claims its submarine sank the liner Arabic because the ship was intending to ram the submarine. “Lies and insolence” is how the Telegraph regards this excuse – page 7 - The Trade Union Congress decides to investigate whether David Lloyd George’s indictment of union practices in munitions works is justified, and condemns the Government as “criminally negligent in not taking steps to prevent sides in prices” – page 7 - A White Paper proposes rises in pensions and grants to disabled officers and to officers’ widows, orphans and dependents – page 8 - A Dutch reporter gives an account of the recent landings at Suvla Bay in the Dardanelles from the Turkish side – page 8

10th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph the Trade Unions may have been praised in the previous day’s paper for their patriotism at the Congress in Bristol, but the boot was on the other foot when David Lloyd George came to speak to them. In what was described in the lengthy report on pages 9 and 10 as “plain speaking” Lloyd George called for the unions in Government-controlled munitions works to suspend their practices and eschew strikes, contrasting the situation in them unfavourably with their German counterparts. In the leader on page 8 it was thus the “skilful” Lloyd George who garnered the acclaim, whilst “Trade Unionism continues to show itself inflexible in certain directions in which it could, by a temporary suspension of some of its working principles, greatly further the work of supplying our Armies with the means of victory.” It was time for the unions to put their money where their mouths were.
Also in today’s paper
- Leonard Spray gives an expectedly grim portrayal of Ostend’s first summer season under German occupation – page 6
- Today’s appeal letter – a canteen for Italian soldiers (page 6)
- Both British and German accounts of the latest Zeppelin raids appear on page 9. Below it is reported that insurance offices were busy as a result of the raids - Russia scores a victory near Tarnopol in Galicia – “an excellent omen” with the Tsar coming to take command - page 9. Meanwhile Petrograd sends a humble address to the Tsar praying for the active prosecution of the war which reads as a criticism of his government’s efforts so far on page 10 - Reports of Turkish atrocities in Armenia filter through on page 11

9th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph the meeting of the Trade Union Congress in Bristol was receiving extensive coverage in the Telegraph (see pages 7 and 8), and the paper was rather pleased with what it was hearing there, so much in fact that we have the relatively rare sight of a leader singing its praises on page 6. The Congress had passed a resolution pledging “to do everything it its power to bring victory to our arms” and the paper observed that that this resolution “was supported in speeches breathing as fervent a spirit of patriotism, and testifying to as firm a grasp of the essentials of the moral situation underlying the state of war, as have been shown in any utterances put on record since the sword of Great Britain was drawn in this tremendous quarrel” whilst praising the speakers “who made it clear that the workers of this country put victory in the war above all other considerations and will have no dealings with the contemptible propaganda of the several tiny cliques who are advertising their half-baked intellectualism up and down the country.” The TUC was doing the right thing as far as the paper was concerned, and it was delighted.
Also in today’s paper:
- After two days of reports from an American author visiting the Royal Navy, it’s the turn of a Frenchman to sing their praises when he visits them – page 6
- More on the Tsar’s decision to take command of his army personally on page 7
- And more on the latest Zeppelin raids on page 7 as well - The man found with the incriminating letter over the Austro-Hungarian plot to foment strikes in America claims he was only the messenger and had no idea of its contents – page 7. On page 8 Canadian papers report on a plot to attack the country’s wheat harvest - “Famous poet” Gabriele d’Annunzio, better known to posterity as a future founder of the Fascist Party, starts a series of articles on his impressions of war with the Italian army on page 8 - More on the sinking of the Hesperian on page 9, as the number missing has now risen to 32

8th Sepember 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph more miners’ strikes on – page 6, over one of their number being given notice in one instance and owing to the presence of non-unionists in another, but those taking part in the former are taken to court and fined
- Page 6 also has a report on the Jewish New Year
- France prohibits the export of vegetables, but the Telegraph’s article doesn’t think that, with the exception of potatoes and cauliflowers this will impinge much on Britain, saying that amongst other things “French onions barely count in the matter of popular consumption” and “garlic is surely not a necessity of life” – page 6
- Another German air raid runs the banner headline on page 9, but again details are extremely scanty - David Lloyd George tells the Trade Union Congress that no profit-mongering is possible at the munitions works placed under government control, to the delight of the brothers – page 9. On page 10 the debate on conscription at the congress isn’t as fiery as Our Special Correspondent was expecting - A great battle is reported in Central Poland – page 9, whilst on the same page telegrams between the Tsar and the French President over the former’s decision to put himself at the head of his army are published, and the Russians are pleased to announce George V’s sympathy and admiration for them - Youths of 14 and over in Vienna are told to undergo military training “with a view to their preparation for military service when called upon,” which the Telegraph then distorts in the headline to “14-year-old soldiers” – page 10

7th September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph it was not a happy day for the Central Powers in America. Firstly on page 8  The Daily Telegraph Correspondent in New York refutes suggestions that Germany is bamboozling America into thinking it wishes peace. Then across on page 9 we have the “amazing disclosures” that Austria-Hungary was privy to a plot to create strikes in American munitions works, which unsurprisingly doesn’t go down well across the pond, and the news that the liner Hesperian finally succumbed to the German torpedo attack and sank, and that reports that all had survived were premature, this attack making it “impossible to tell whether doubt, dismay, disgust or confusion is uppermost in the minds of officials” in Washington. If Germany didn’t want America to fall into the Allied camp, she wasn’t exactly helping her cause.
Also in today’s paper
- Another bumper crop of awards for gallantry, on pages 6 and 7
- Another new committee is set up by the Government, this one “an important step in the direction of national organisation” to deal with questions arising out of the National Registration Act – page 8
- Germany is reportedly developing a plane which can fly to London and back in 5 hours – page 8 - An American author visits the British Grand Fleet, and reports on what he found – page 9 - Germany claims to have taken possession of the Gulf of Riga, which suggests the Russian victory trumpeted on August 23 might not have been quite as clear-cut as suggested – page 9 - Our Special Correspondent at the trade Union Congress meeting reports that the war overshadows every other topic – page 11.

6th September 1915

On the 4th September 1915 the S.S. Hesperian was attacked while on route from Liverpool to Quebec by U-20.  The German submarine was under the

 command of Walther Schwieger who was also responsible for the sinking of the Lusitania on 7th May 1915. The S.S. Hesperian with a crew compliment of 300 and carrying 314 passengers was torpedoed in the starboard side of the bow which exploded in the front engine room and began to list within ten minutes of being hit. Having sent an S.O.S, Captain W.S. Main the Hesperian’s master managed to fill the ships life boats with his passengers’ (mostly women and children) and all but twelve members of the crew, and got them away safely.

Within a couple of hours of the SOS call ships from the Royal Navy were at the scene to rescue the survivors out of the lifeboats. Captain Main remained on his vessel with his skeleton crew and endeavoured to nurse the stricken liner back to port, but on the morning of the 6th September, Captain Main came to the conclusion that nothing could be done to save his ship, and within twelve minutes of her Captain abandoning his ship the SS Hesperian sank.

Among the survivors was Private S. W. Chambers who was returning to Canada having been invalided out of the army after having been blinded by concussion. He fell into the sea after losing his balance while in his life boat, the shock of entering the cold water apparently restored his sight.

Bannister, Alice 2nd class passenger
Barlow, Robert Canadian Merchant Navy
Barr, Mary A. 3rd class passenger
Bell, Kenneth Canadian Merchant Navy
Carbonnery, Ellen 1st class passenger
Cownley, Mr. W. 3rd class passenger
Creegan, Michael Canadian Merchant Navy
Fowler, Hannah 2nd class passenger
Fowler, Joseph 2nd class passenger
Ghyselen, Jules Mercantile Marine (Belgian citizen)
Graham, Norman Canadian Merchant Navy
Green, Mary Ann Mercantile Marine
Hughes, Thomas W. Canadian Merchant Navy
Jenkins, Maria 2nd class passenger (11 months old)
Jones, Albert E. Canadian Merchant Navy
Kennedy, Eliza Canadian Merchant Navy
Kerr, John Canadian Merchant Navy
Kingdom, John S. Canadian Merchant Navy
Maberley, Thomas Canadian Merchant Navy
McGuinnity, Charles Canadian Merchant Navy
Monaghan, P. Mercantile Marine
Morrey, Emily 2nd class passenger
Murphy, P. J. Canadian Merchant Navy
Norman, Richard D Canadian Merchant Navy
Simpson, James  Canadian Merchant Navy
Skerratt, William Canadian Merchant Navy
Taylor, Nellie 3rd class passenger (4 months old)
Unknown Canadian Private Passenger
Whelan, Joseph J. Canadian Merchant Navy
Winter, John S. Waiter  Canadian Merchant Navy
Wolff, Frederick J. Canadian Merchant Navy
Wren, David Canadian Merchant Navy

In todays' Daily Telegraph,  despite German promises to the Americans over submarine attacks on liners another found itself under attack off Ireland. Fortunately the torpedo strike didn’t sink the ship, the liner Hesperian, and all those on board were reported to have been taken off safely, which slightly undermines the banner headline’s claim of “650 souls in peril.” Remarkably one passenger on board had cause to be thankful for the attack, as a blind ex-soldier thrown into the sea found his sight restored to him. Page 9 has the details, along with Arthur James Balfour writing a letter critical of Germany’s naval policies, and inevitably it generates another leader on page 8 attacking the Germans (“the world will hear with astonishment and horror of the new and deliberate outrage perpetrated by a German submarine”) although whoever wrote it clearly hadn’t got up to date with the reports in referring to the sinking of the ship!
Also in today’s paper
- The Trade Union Congress convenes in Bristol – page 7. They strenuously object to the country being “rushed” into conscription, whilst Ramsay MacDonald makes a speech claiming “conscription was absolutely of no value during war.”
- The first article of a new Rudyard Kipling series on “France at War” starts on page 9
- More on the Russian retreat on page 10, with the commandant of the Ossovets fortress reporting German attacks using balloons containing poison gas, and the Russians burning down Brest-Litovsk on their evacuation of the city. The Tsar responds to the situation by forming two special councils for the organisation of national defence (page 9) - Germany is ripping up the rails of steam tramways in Belgium to provide metal for use in the Eastern Front – page 10 - A Scottish Victoria Cross winner returns home, where he is presented with a clock and £1,000 of New War Loan Stock by those appreciative of his deeds – page 11

4thSeptember 1915

In Todays' Daily Telegraph another day with nothing particularly new or notable in the paper, with another despatch from the Dardanelles on page 7 dominating the news pages, so straight again to the digest of articles today:
- The women’s page reports on Germany’s warning against its women wearing wide skirts – page 4
- As expected from the articles over the previous two days, long boots are to be adopted instead of puttees by British soldiers in the trenches – page 7
- The Earl of Rosebery calls for people to put their trust in the Government over the thorny issue of compulsory service – page 7. You can just imagine the reaction if such a call were made a century on. Over on page 8 Rosebery goes on to criticise strikers (worse than the loss of a pitched battle in the field” whilst Lord Derby gives a warning to the slackers – “not going to escape service in the long run”
- German and America’s dispute over the former’s submarine warfare policy takes a new turn as they quibble over the definition of a liner – page 8 - Playwright Sir Arthur Pinero writes a letter on page 8 calling for greater use of the Volunteer Corps by the authorities, whilst altering the ending of one of his plays to make it happier (same page)

3rd September 1915

William Thomas Dartnell V.C
(6 April 1885 – 3 Sept 1915)

Maktau (East Africa)

On the morning of 3rd September Captain Woodruffe and the Mounted Infantry Company, (3 officers and 63 rifles strong in three troops), set out with orders to intercept an enemy raiding party. (Lieutenant W. T. Dartnell was in command of No. 3 Troop) After an Hour and a quarters ride the petrol dismounted and set up an ambush. No 3 Troop was positioned on the right flank No1 in the centre and No 2 the left flank, The mules were
taken out of sight  to the rear of the dismounted infantry who extended to form a firing line on a slight slope in the bush. It is believed that one of the fusiliers in No. 3 Troop accidentally discharged his rifle, and the sound of this shot gave away the Mounted Infantry Company’s position and attracted an enemy patrol towards it.

A number of three men picquet’s who had been posted forward of the firing line reported the approach of an enemy patrol, of unknown strength but estimated at around 200 men, the bush having concealed their advance until they were almost on top of the picquet’s.  Having fired at the German patrol from as close as 10 yards the picquet’s withdrew rapidly back onto the firing line which had now started to take casualties amongst No.1 and 2 Troops as the enemy returned fire.  No.3 Troop, which at that time was not engaged with the enemy, was ordered to bring their right flank forward but misunderstood the order causing them to bunch towards the centre and thus making for a better target for the German askari.  Orders were given to fix bayonets as the two forces came closer together, Captain Woodruffe was severely wounded in the back, Lieutenant Dartnell hit in the leg and casualties amongst the men continued to increase as the Germans threatened to surround the outnumbered British force

At this point Captain Woodruffe gave orders for the Mounted Infantry to break off contact with the enemy.  He was carried out of the action under heavy fire by Private H. Bristow, 2nd Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, who had been tending to the wounded; Private Bristow was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for his efforts.  Meanwhile Second Lieutenant Parker reorganized the Mounted Infantry Company and a successful retirement to the waiting mules was effected.  Taking with them as many of the wounded as could ride, the mules were mounted and the position abandoned.  Those remaining casualties unable to be moved had to be left behind.  Lieutenant Dartnell, fully realising the risk that he was undertaking, knowing as he did that the wounded were likely to be treated unfavourably by the enemy askaris, refused Lieutenant Parker’s attempt to rescue him and asked to be left behind, his reasoning being that the presence of a British officer might be enough to save the lives of the wounded.  Sadly his gallant conduct was in vain and he met his death along with the rest of the wounded.

For his selfless actions on that day Lieutenant Dartnell was subsequently awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross, the citation for which read “For most conspicuous bravery near Maktau (East Africa) on 3rd September, 1915. During a mounted infantry engagement the enemy got within a few yards of our men, and it was found impossible to get the more severely wounded away. Lieutenant Dartnell, who was himself being carried away wounded in the leg, seeing, the situation, and knowing that the enemy's black troops murdered the wounded, insisted on being left behind in the hopes of being able to save the lives of the other wounded men. He gave his own life in the gallant attempt to save others.”

 When reinforcements reached the scene of the engagement an hour later the enemy had fled, leaving behind eight British corpses, all partially and four entirely stripped, along with two dead German askaris and another who died of his wounds.  At least four of the British dead had been finished off at very close range and all had two or more wounds. In the opinion of Major Robinson who saw the eight British corpses, concluded that all had been shot or bayonetted at close range, after being either dead or wounded. 

Lieutenant W. T. Dartnell
Sergeant C. W. Philips
Private D. M. Henderson
Private F. Bristow
Private J. A. S. Cooper
Private F. Ward
Private W. A. Acton
Private R. Brockbank

Missing presumed K.I.A
Private H. Bradley
Corporal H. Robinson
Lance Corporal S. Goddard

In todays' Daily Telegraph Ellis Ashmead Bartlett, is photographed at work on page 3. His latest despatch can be found on page 7
- By the Silver Sea on page 5 gives a universally rosy picture for the resorts during the summer and into autumn, even going to the extent of referencing Clacton’s “gorgeous band pavilion and marine colonnade”
- A “mass of dirt” is found in an examination of the air in the City of London – page 5
- More forts fall to the Germans in Poland, but the Russians continue to portray this as an orderly withdrawal and of no great significance – page 7. German claims as to the number of Russians killed, captured and wounded in this advance are also dismissed as “boasting” - A letter from Charles Dickens comes to light identifying the inspiration behind his character from Nicholas Nickleby “the despicable Yorkshire schoolmaster” Wackford Squeers – page 7 - Back to April’s fighting in Ypres as the German view of the end of Hill Sixty comes to light – page 8 - Sixty Allied planes bomb a forest – page 8. The article reveals the Germans had ammunition sheds in the forest, which explains why it was a target, and unlike a number of recent articles on air raids actually reports on the destruction being wrought by it - The spirit of volunteer munition workers is as a whole unquenched by the reality of their job, reports an article on page 8. You half expect to see something favourably contrasting them with the South Wales miners, but there is nothing - The price of tomatoes is relatively high with a trade boom in the fruit – page 10

2nd September 1915

It was announced in the British press of the death of Adolphe Célestin Pégoud.The term "ace” was first used by French newspapers to describe Adolphe Pegoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft at the beginning of The Great War. As a test pilot he flew the first inverted flight on 1st September 1913 and on the 21st he flew a loop, believing it to be the world's first. At the start of the Great War, Pégoud volunteered for flying duty and was immediately accepted as an observation

pilot. On 5th February 1915, he and his gunner were credited with shooting down two German aircraft and forcing another to land. Soon he was flying single-seat aircraft and in April claimed two further victories. His sixth success came in July. On 31 August 1915 Pégoud was shot down, ironically by one of his former German students, Unteroffizier Kandulski, while intercepting a German reconnaissance aircraft. The same German crew later dropped a funeral wreath above the French lines.

In todays' Daily Telegraph“In truth the Welsh miner is a born fighter, and there is nothing he likes better than fighting, whether on the battlefield, on the mountain side with the bare fists away from the policeman, or more especially against the coalowner.” Was the Telegraph’s correspondent making a coded hint about redeploying these recalcitrant men, who despite accepting the new settlement to their strike had not yet returned to work? Indeed another 15,000 had come out even as the settlement was being reached, on the grounds it had not actually done so, and they had resolved to strike if there wasn’t a settlement in place by the time they set, which had been the case, but seemed like hair-splitting. As our correspondent understatedly commented “their conduct was something more than irritating.” Page 10 has the details, and the hope that “there will be no more strikes until the war is over.” Also in today’s paper - A jealous Indian is tried for shooting a former lover after she married a soldier when he was in India. Amongst the questions asked of the victim – “Did you ask him to shot you?” – page 4 - Plenty more on the annual conference of the Library Association on page 4 - It is not only the Germans Imperial troops have to fight, as things are proving lively on the North-West Frontier of India on page 7 - Our Medical Correspondent reports on page 7 on the problems used by wearing puttees in the trenches - A letter on page 7 takes issue with Balfour’s explanation for the lack of detail given about Zeppelin raids, pointing out Italian papers are able to publish detailed reports before the Admiralty even gives the news - The Press Bureau dismisses an article claiming to show what life is like for German women and children in London as a lie campaign by the Germans – page 8 - “An important tactical feature” has been captured in the Dardanelles, whatever that means, and “an appreciable gain of ground” has been achieved by the Anzac troops – page 9 - Germany announces that “liners will not be sunk by our submarines without warning and without ensuring the safety of the lives of non-combatants, provided that the liners do not try to escape or offer resistance.” – page 9. The Telegraph regards this as the discontinuance of wholesale murder, although it doesn’t make much of the scope for wriggle room given by the last clause, save for pointing out that all merchant ships have the right to try to escape or offer resistance in a leader on page 8 - Russian reveals the war is costing £742 million a year – page 10 - Extraordinary scenes in Sing Sing Prison as the prisoners celebrate the return of their warden after a short holiday – page 11, although given criticism that “Sing Sing is being converted into an establishment more resembling a lady’s boudoir than a penitentiary” no wonder he’s so popular

1st September 1915

In todays' Daily Telegraph “To the relief of everybody a settlement was yesterday arrived in connection with the dispute in the South Wales coal trade.”
Another agreement was forged to end the dispute in the South Wales coalfields, and page 7 has all the details. Not that the Telegraph was impressed with anybody over this dispute – Our Mining Correspondent’s analysis on the same page put its outbreak down to blundering by Ministers, masters and men, whilst a leader on page 6 on the “conclusion of a most lamentable episode in our island history” was not impressed with the workers’ attitude – “a spirit of hard bargaining which is miserably out of place in the gravest time of danger that the country has ever faced” and neither with the Government – “and nor can it pretended that the Ministers concerned come out of the business with flying colours” before concluding “none of the principal parties to these negotiations can feel proud of their part in them.” And it clearly wasn’t happy that settlement had been reached by effectively giving in to the miners’ demands either.
Also in today’s paper
- The Departmental Committee on Food Production in England and Wales produces its interim report, and calls for more wheat cultivation – page 7
- Philip Gibbs turns his eye on how British troops are billeted in France – page 8 - The German army raises its age limit to 54 – page 8 - The annual conference of the Library Association gets quite detailed coverage on page 9