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November 2015

30th November 1915









Émilienne Moreau-Evrard is one of France most revered heroines, highly decorated for her acts duringthe Great War and the Second World War. During the occupation of Loss in the Great War Emilienne continued her chosen profession as a teacher, creating an improvised class room in a cellar

During a British counter attack  launched on the 25th September 1915 to retake Loos, and still only seventeen Emilienne provided the British with sufficient intelligence on German emplacements’ in a local stronghold, that they were rendered virtually useless. Émilienne continued to aid the British by organising a first aid post in her house, with the help of a Scottish doctor she tended to wounded soldiers in her care.

 
In a later incident, with the help of some British Tommie’s, she rushed from her home armed with a handful of grenades to rescue a British soldier who was pinned down by enemy fire, forcing the Germans to retreat into a nearby house.  Arming herself with a revolver she shoots two German soldiers though a closed wooden door.

For her action Émilienne Moreau is awarded the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with an army acknowledgement given directly by Marshal Ferdinand Foch and the Croix du Combattant by the French Army. The British too acknowledge her heroism and is awarded the Military Medal; she also receives the Royal Red Cross (first class) and the Venerable Order of Saint John. This last award is rarely given to a woman. She was personally invited to meet the President of the French Republic Raymond Poincaré and later the British King, George V.

 The French newspaper Le Petit Parisian wrote in detail of her exploits, making her a national hero. The army and the press use her image for propaganda and in 1916 her exploits were made into a film. The Joan of Arc of Loos (1916).  After graduating, she ended the war teaching in a boys' school in Paris.

After the Great War Émilienne marries the socialist activist Just Evrard in 1932, two years later she is appointed as General Secretary of the women's socialist movement of her department.

Émilienne, who was known by the Germans for her actions in the Great War, is immediately placed under house arrest, following the occupation of France during World War 2, eventually allowed to return to Lens, she started to distribute propaganda brochures against Marshal Philippe Pétain and his capitulation and started to feed the British Intelligence Service with crucial information. At the end of 1940, Emillienne and her husband created a secret section of her socialist party in Lens.

She was known by her aliases “Jeanne Poirier” and “Émilienne la Blonde “in French Resistance circles and as a member of “France au Combat” (“The Fighting French”) which was founded in 1943 by André Boyer, she worked with Augustin Laurent, André Le Troquer and Pierre Lambert. From March 1944 until her escape to the U.K in August 44 she was on the Gestapo’s most wanted list.

For her work in the French resistance, she was awarded the rare title of Compagnon de la Libération by General Charles de Gaulle in Béthune in August 1945. When World War II was over, she became a politician in the French Socialist Party.
Émilienne Moreau-Evrard died on 5th January 1971 and was buried in Lens, aged 72 years old.

 FULL IST OF HONOURS:
Officer of the Légion d'honneur
Compagnon de la Libération - legislative bill of August 11, 1945
Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with one palm
Croix de guerre 1939-1945
Croix du combattant
Croix du combattant volontaire de la Résistance
Military Medal
Royal Red Cross
Venerable Order of Saint John

In todays' Daily Telegraph:The Union of Democratic Control peace rally being held in Farringdon, London was disrupted by  a collection of medical students and soldiers  who clearly decided that the expression of such views should not be allowed and took measures to prevent it being taken, including “stink pots” and physical force

Given the way the Telegraph reported on American peace groups the day before, it is no surprise to see the students and soldiers being portrayed in a sympathetic, if not heroic light, and the Union of Democratic Control vilified for its views.

Also in today’s paper

- The case of novelist Annesley Kenealy, (see November 20) takes a new twist at a hearing where she is charged with attempting to commit suicide, as the house physician at the hospital where she was taken claims the bottle of poison she claimed to drink was nothing of the sort – page 4

- The new set of awards for distinguished service includes 99 men being granted the Distinguished Conduct Medal, with the details of how each man earned it given on page 6

- Can one ever get used to a boat collision or such like being described as an “exciting incident,” as the collision of two pilot boats off Deal is described on page 7?

- Lord Derby writes to the chairman of the British Red Cross informing him that he considers that the proper place of many men doing work for it is in the fighting ranks and that the Red Cross should enable this to be so – page 9

- After all the complaints beforehand there is “no organised resentment” to London’s new drink restrictions, the first day of which is covered at some length on pages 9 and 10

- “The entire world must prepare to shudder when all that is happening on the Albanian refugee trails comes to light” claims an American journalist detailing the “terrible suffering” of the Serbs, reported on page 10

- A young American is pardoned for spying for the Germans in London through the intervention of Theodore Roosevelt, and the British government’s “mercy and magnanimity” in this case is favourably contrasted with the German treatment of Edith Cavell – page 10

- The Foreign Office issues “a choice collection of German mendacities” bringing “amazing charges” against the Allies in the Cameroons – page 10

- The Y.M.C.A. takes out a full-page advert on page 12 to highlight its huts for soldiers, and appeal for more money for the cause
.

29th November 1915





In todays' Daily Telegraph: G. Ward Price was able to report today on the British troops doing their bit for Serbia, with a report from that country about the troops’ experiences in Macedonia on page 9. However, G. J. Stevens from Athens gave the impression that it might be too little too late, given his claim on the same page that “the end of Serbia has come,” which suggested the “German boasts” over on page 10 might be justifiable. Also in today’s paper - The Government issues a bill prohibiting increases in rent and mortgage interest are prohibited in certain areas – page 7 - An article on page 10 shows that 462 Old Etonians have been killed since the outbreak of war; the institution’s St Andrew’s day sports are also deemed worthy of an article on page 11 - “Daring Parachute Descent” on page 7 and “Naval Airman’s Feat” on page 10 tell the same story, which isn’t very clever - The paper clearly has little time for peace groups in the USA, given the headline and tone to the report “Peacemongers in the United States” on page 11-


28th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 28th November 1915.



The translation is:

King Peter of Serbia in the trench




27th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph:- According to the acting secretary of the Boy Scouts’ Association, between 15 and 20 thousand of their number are now serving in the forces – page 5
- The Serbs make an appeal to the Americans with the claim that three million of their number are suffering from starvation (page 6) and “shocking atrocities” are claimed to have been perpetrated upon them in an article on page 7
- The Bechstein Hall in London loses its music licence on the grounds its proprietors are alien enemies – page 6
- “Salonika today must be a sort of paradise for spies” claims an article on page 7 - Queen Mary and two of her children (including the future George VI) visit a factory manufacturing equipment for the army – page 8 - The British are back on the advance towards Baghdad – page 9 - More evidence for Turkish massacres of the Armenians appears on pages 9 and 10 - The number of marriages in the second quarter of 1915 is the highest quarterly figure since records began in 1837, but the number of births in the third quarter is the lowest-ever – page 10 - Plenty more on the resistance to increased drinking restrictions in London on page 10, with a leader on page 8 showing sympathy with the protestors, if not always their methods - The Prussian War Minister plans to ban Christmas greetings home from soldiers at the front, allegedly so they can’t express a wish for an early termination of the war – page 11 .

26th November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph: Greece provides a satisfactory answer to the Allies’ demands on her (page 9). The Serbian Army is still in retreat (page 9). More on Lord Derby and his recruitment campaign (page 5) and the hostility to London’s drink restrictions (page 6). The Chancellor of the Exchequer claims victory is “assured” (page 10). There is a very familiar feel to much of the news today, even one of the major developments, the Italian capture of Gorizia (page 9), comes after four months’ fighting.
Also in today’s paper
- After Leonard Spray’s article the previous day, Bernard Pares joins in with stories of escaped Russian prisoners of war on the Eastern Front, albeit a month out of date – page 4. Also on that page, the “interesting story” is told of a German captured on that front who took a round-the-world route to return home, only to be captured again in the North Sea
- A 67-year-old soldier is tried for theft in Windsor – page 4. On page 5 comes a report of a jewellery theft in Hatton Gardens
- Success is proclaimed certain for France’s first great war loan – page 7. As if any other outcome would be reported - Perceval Landon reports from Persia on page 11, commenting that it is "sad but easy to follow the aimless impotence of what passes for policy” there - MP’s give Herbert Asquith’s daughter Violet a wedding present – page 11. Hard to imagine something like this a century on - A Judge is proud to produce his third-class season ticket in court – page 13

25th November 1915


In todays a Daily Telegraph: It was over a week since Lord St. Davids had attacked Headquarters Staff in the Lords, but the outrage at his assertions still persisted. The Earl of Derby, today addressing the Stock Exchange (pages 9 and 10) rebutted his assertions as having “not a word of truth” and referred to a “stabbing in the back” which gave the title to the latest polemical leader (page 8) attacking “one of the most deplorable episodes in the recent history of Parliament” and expressing outrage at the lack of an apology for the claims. Add in a letter adjacent to his also rebutting the charges as “unfounded” and it was clear this story was still very much live.
Also in today’s paper
- We had the buffet at Victoria two days ago, now it is the turn of London Bridge today on page 4
- Ongoing annoyance over London’s drink restrictions leads to an open-air demonstration at Smithfield Market – page 7
- Want of water forces the British to withdraw from a captured position near Baghdad – page 9. According to the Germans the troops, having marched from Cairo, were routed by the Turks – page 10, although the article has an appendix denying this “amazing march” has happened - Page 10 has a report on the Last Battle of the Foreign Legion - Two Daily Telegraph war maps are turned into card games – page 10 - Russian prisoners are used as forced labour in Belgium, reports Leonard Spray on page 12  .

24th November 1915




In todays' Daily Telegraph: Serbia was still dominating the news, with two major articles and several smaller ones on page 9 alone today. A delayed despatch from G. J. Stevens about Monastir led the way, a “vivid story of Serbia’s struggle” proclaimed the banner headline, whilst he painted a further “sombre picture” in a later despatch. Add in the next part of G. Ward Price’s despatch about the French forces fighting there, which continued on to page 10, and Telegraph readers had plenty to digest about the situation there. Also in today’s paper - A bit of a curious choice of Christmas card by King George V, in a picture of the 1591 action in which the Revenge took on a whole Spanish fleet, for whilst it was a gallant stand, it still lost (page 3) - In aid of National Book Fortnight W. L. Courtney waxes lyrical about the joys of reading fiction – page 4 - An article on page 7 assesses what would be sensible economies in war time - “No Greek ships are being seized or held up in the ports of the United Kingdom, and no blockade of Greek ports has been instituted or is in force” claims the Foreign Office on page 9, despite what has been reported over the last two days - The postponement of the Parliament and Registration Bill suggests there are some difficulties to be resolved with this legislation – page 9 - Theatre managers will be permitted to allow smoking at weekends in their venues – page 9 - A witness is missing from the trial of a German plotter in America, whilst the prosecution implicates the German embassy in the affair – page 10 - Lord Derby fells an American journalist of his belief that there are “few slackers now” – page 10 - American jockey Tod Sloan is detained and ordered to be deported under the provisions of the Defence of the Realm act, whilst a French actress is also held, in a situation which causes “considerable surprise” in London – page 10. No explanation is given as to why - “No beer, no work” is the slogan as opposition grows to the latest liquor restrictions in London – page 11 - A claim is made on page 11 that in two days at Loos the Germans lost 80% of their men, “higher than ever hoped for.” Imagine the derision that would be heaped upon an German claim of that nature - A British airman turns the tables after engine trouble means his plane is captured in “an extraordinary story” on page 11


-

23rd November 1915







Corporal Alfred George Drake of the 8 Rifle Brigade was part of a four-man patrol sent out into no man’s land o the night of 23 November. The patrol was discovered when it was illuminated by an enemy flare and came under heavy fire, Lt Tryon, the officer in command of the patrol and one rifleman were shot and wounded almost instantly. Corporal Drake ordered the surviving rifleman to drag the wounded soldier back to the British lines; Lt Tryon wounds were more serious and needed immediate medical attention so Drake remained with his officer tending his wounds.






his citation reads: For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 23rd Nov., 1915, near La Brique, France. He was one of a patrol of four which was reconnoitring towards the German lines. The patrol was discovered when close to the enemy who opened heavy fire with rifles and a machine gun, wounding the Officer and one man. The latter was carried back by the last remaining man. Corporal Drake remained with his Officer and was last seen kneeling beside him and bandaging his wounds regardless of the enemy's fire. Later a rescue party crawling near the German lines found the Officer and Corporal, the former unconscious but alive and bandaged, Corporal Drake beside him dead and riddled with bullets. He had given his own life and saved his Officer.

In todays' Daily Telegraph: - Page 4 is given over to National Book Fortnight, and for the first time since its publication the previous month you’ll find mention of one of the year’s most famous novels, John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps, in the paper. On page 11 you can read about the most popular book in Berlin, which imagines a triumphal entry of the Germans into London
- One of “several chapters in the record of women’s war work yet to be written” is covered on page 5 with an account of the buffets for soldiers provided at London Victoria station. Inversely, an article on page 7 covers canteens for women munition workers
- The War Office announces regulation on Christmas mail to the troops, which had to be limited “in military interests” – page 5
- A “well-known boxer” is court-martialled for inciting men in his platoon to mutiny and refusing to go on parade – page 5 - The banner headline on page 9 speaks of a “Pacific blockade of Greece” which sounds a tad hard to enforce, and doesn’t really relate to any of the articles on the current situation there, including more on Lord Kitchener’s visit - The fighting by French forces in the Balkans is documented by G. Ward Price on pages 9 and 10 - The official list of occupations from which recruits are not to be drawn under the Earl of Derby’s scheme takes up a fair portion of page 10 - The Italians report racing “veritable hurricanes of shells” in an article on page 10 - The tale of how Lieutenant-Commander Layton of submarine E13 escaped from internment in Denmark is copied from the Liverpool Courier – page 11 .

22nd November 1915

20th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 21st November 1915.


 

Joseph Simon Gallieni was appointed minister of war for France in 1915, a position he held until his resignation in March 1916. At the outbreak of the Great War he was called out of retirement and appointed Military Governor of Paris. During the battle of the Marne in 1914 he is remembered as being instrumental in commandering Parisian Taxicabs and rushing elements of the sixth army to the front and launching an attack on the German west flank.

Throughout the early years of the Great War, Gallieni was constantly at odds with Marshal Joseph Joffre, this culminated in Gallieni’s public criticism of Joffre’s tactical abilities at the siege of Verdun, the unseemly falling out of two senior officers was deemed to be disastrous for military moral and Gallieni resigned his position, but was persuaded to remain in office until a replacement had been designated and approved.

Joseph Simon Gallieni who was suffering from cancer died on the 27th May 1916. He was made Marshal of France posthumously in 1921, he is considered by the French to be their most distinguished soldier, but he is infamous in Madagascar when as Governor he was the French military leader who exiled Queen Ranavalona III and abolished the 350-year-old monarchy on the island. Gallieni wanted the French army to give up the red trousers worn by French soldiers and adopt a less conspicuous uniform, Gallieni proposed attacking the Turkish straits in 1914, and was sceptical of Joffre’s plans for a massive Anglo-French offensive on the Somme.


20th November 1915







In todays' Daily Telegraph:Quite a packed paper for articles of some interest today, so straight to a list of them:
- Funny how it’s the royal schoolboy that the Telegraph focusses on in the photo of “Eton College Boys’ War Work” on page 3, in the shape of the future Duke of Gloucester
- A dramatic scene at the Law Courts on page 5 as an authoress who had lost a case against W. H. Smith over alleged malicious comments over her book “a Water Fly’s Wooing” (case reported on page 4) tells the judge he has ruined her life and drinks poison, and is subsequently taken to hospital where it is reported she is recovering
- Claude Phillips is a busy man today, looking at the effects on the art of Verona of the Austrian bombing on page 5, reporting that the National Portrait Gallery has closed for the duration of the war on page 6 and reviewing an exhibition of modern original drawings on page 7
- More on Edith Cavell’s last days from members of her nursing institution arriving at Tilbury on page 6 - J. M. Barrie contributes a play to a war relief matinée on behalf of wounded Australasian soldiers called “The Fatal Typist” – a “whimsical trifle” reports the paper (page 6) - The honorary secretary of the Russia Society writes a letter on page 6 deploring facetious remarks made over the pronunciation of Russian names - Life under German occupation in France and Belgium is the subject of two adjacent articles on page 7 - “Much interesting information concerning the effects of war conditions on women’s employment is contained in the report for 1914 of the Chief Inspector of Factories” which forms an article on page 7, although you’d have thought given most of 1915 has passed conditions might well be different again - Rudyard Kipling’s latest series of articles “The Fringes of the Fleet” opens on page 9 - The Earl of Derby and Herbert Asquith reiterate that married men are not to be called up until the stock of young unmarried men is exhausted – page 9 - “All hope abandoned” for the Serb town of Monastir reports A. Beaumont on page 9, who also on the same page gives details of the Captain of the sunk liner Ancona’s account of its demise - The latest liquor regulations for London are given in full on pages 9 and 10, with a leader on the subject on page 8 which expresses some disquiet at the perceived need to treat some areas of the capital in the same way as more military-industrial areas - Philip Gibbs argues that it is still correct to publish new stories from Loos as he proceeds to do just that in what the Telegraph considers to be a “thrilling story” on page 10 - Lord Charles Beresford weighs in on Churchill’s resignation speech, and damns the erstwhile First Lord for his assumption of responsibility, and the naval bombardment of the Dardanelles as a “mad scheme” – page 10. On page 6 the Germans try to make propaganda capital out of the resignation  .

19th November 1915



In todays Daily Telegraph:The plots concerning Lord Kitchener and the Dardanelles campaign took a dramatic turn today in a report on page 9, as “certain facts of first-class interest and importance” concerning them “was slipped out in an almost casual way” in the House of Lords, when it the course of a “discursive speech” by Lord Ribblesdale and a reply to it by lord Lansdowne it emerged just where Kitchener had gone on his mysterious leave of absence. Apparently the incoming commander to the Dardanelles, Sir Charles Monro, had reported that the military position was such that his recommendation was withdrawal, which might explain his sudden hasty reallocation to the Serbian front, and Kitchener had been asked by Herbert Asquith on behalf of the Cabinet to give “a second expert opinion” on the situation there. No wonder precise details of what had prompted Kitchener’s departure to the “Near East” had not been forthcoming.
Also in today’s paper
- No sooner are survivors from the hospital ship Anglia are landed assure than there is a letter of appeal for them, on page 5. Interestingly a report on the same page on the sinking reveals the steamer which came to its assistance was called Lusitania, and coincidentally the latest American demand to the Germans over the sinking of her bigger counterpart also appears on that page
- The National Patriotic Association, in association with the Textile Association, draws up terms upon which businesses can urge the whole of their employees of military age to enlist are given on page 5. Meanwhile London banks decide to do their bit for the recruiting cause by closing at 3pm (page 7)
- The Assistant Postmaster-General updates information on postal arrangements to the Dardanelles (page 5) - A special article on page 7 looks at the hardships to the hotel and restaurant trade created by the sale of liquor restrictions. Meanwhile Japan tries to develop its beer industry to replace the German beer trade in India (same page) - London clubs are ordered to close from midnight to 5am at weekends and 12.30am to 5 on weekday nights – page 9 - Controversy at the Alhambra theatre, where a play by a young Russian dramatist to be performed in front of a royal audience as part of Russia’s day is cancelled minutes before it is due to start, as management take fright at the suggestion it is unsuitable for the occasion – page 9 - A bumper day for new VC holders, with the announcement of no fewer than 18 awards (pages 9 and 10) - Lord Derby meets an enthusiastic audience amongst the “practical” Scots as his tour explaining his recruiting plans goers north of the border – page 10 - A Highgate man is fined £10 for playing the Hamburg State Lottery in continuance of the three decade-long hobby – page 12 - An appeal is made in a letter on page 12 for readers to buy socks knitted by Hebridean fishergirls whose normal trade had been closed off due to war .

18th November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph; Although the Serbs were making a heroic stand, offset by an article further down the page that the Bulgars had forced a pass, King George V expressed shock at the sinking of a hospital ship after hitting the mine, and a Swedish torpedo-boat came to the rescue of a British merchant ship under attack in Swedish waters from a German destroyer (all page 9), the fact that the banner headline on page 9 and leader on page 8 concentrate on the fact the Allies were having a war council in Paris demonstrated the relative paucity of anything particularly new or notable in today’s paper, despite a typically evocative article by Philip Gibbs on his visit to the French front on page 10..

17th November 1915

James Huntley Knight joined The King's Liverpool Regiment as a 14 year old band boy. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 21st August 1900, his citation reads: J Knight, Corporal, 1st Battalion The Liverpool Regiment, No 1 Company, 4th Division, Mounted Infantry. On the 21st August during the operations near Van Wyk's Vlei, Corporal Knight was posted in some rocks with four men,





covering the right rear of a detachment of the same company, who, under Captain Ewart, were holding the right of the line. The enemy, about fifty strong, attacked Captain Ewart's right and almost surrounded, at short range, Corporal Knight's small party. That non-commissioned officer held his ground, directing his party to retire one by one to better cover, while he maintained his position for nearly an hour, covering the withdrawal of Captain Ewart's force, and losing two of his four men. He then retired, bringing with him two wounded men. One of these he left in a place of safety, the other he carried for nearly two miles. The party were hotly engaged during the whole time".

After 19 years’ service he retired from the regiment but following the outbreak of the Great War he enlisted on 25 August in the 11th (Empire Battalion) Royal Fusiliers, later renumbered 17th Royal Fusiliers, and was rapidly promoted Regimental Sergeant Major. In January 1915 he was commissioned as temporary Lieutenant in the 20th Battalion Manchester regiment being promoted temporary Captain May 1915. He relinquished this commission in October 1915 and then re-enlisted the following month as a Private under the name of James Huntley Knight in the London Scottish Regt. He was promoted to Lance Corporal and then Corporal before being wounded at Gommecourt in the Somme on 26th June 1916. He was discharged from the army on 15th March 1917.


In todays' Daily Telegraph:Not quite as interesting a paper today as yesterday, although page 11 has a rather curious article about the Albert Hall cancelling a meeting due to be held there by the Women’s Social and Political Union on the grounds it “cannot be described as patriotic,” even though the meeting was aimed at demanding “the loyal vigorous conduct of the war.” However it was also going to be critical of Herbert Asquith and Sir Edward Grey and denounce the Foreign Office’s “betrayal of Serbia,” which seems to have not gone down well with the powers that be. Nevertheless Emmeline Pankhurst was undeterred and declared her determination to hold it elsewhere. And at the base of page 5 comes an advert by S. Goff & Co. which offers a quite remarkable bag, given what it claims to contain… Also in today’s paper - “We welcome the coming of Christmas in no Scrooge-like spirit” says a leader countering the “killjoys” who advocate “a policy of gloom, repression and abstention” on page 8 - “Less favourable” news from Serbia on page 9 - Winter has arrived in Flanders says a report on page 9 - Admiral Lord Fisher’s self-restraint in replying to Winston Churchill’s apologia the previous day will be applauded by the country reckons an article on page 9. Meanwhile Churchill receives a painting of himself from the Armoured Car Squadron in tribute to his efforts on their behalf – page 10 - France and Italy make threats to Greece over what is seen as her potentially treacherous behaviour, whilst Lord Kitchener arrives in the country – page 9





16th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph; Whilst readers would know that it was the right centre page that was the main news page, normally page 9 at this moment of time, there are occasions where other news pages actually turn out to have more of interest. Whilst today the major news is Winston Churchill’s defence of his actions so far in the war in his resignation speech, which held the Commons in “enthralled attention” although the leader opposite on page 8 didn’t seem quite so keen about some of its contents, both praising and criticising him it its course, the paper being unhappy with his attempts at blame deflection aimed at Lords Fisher and Kitchener, and is admittedly not without interest, page 4 turns out to have a fascinating mixture of articles amongst its contents. Here you can read about historian Arnold Toynbee giving more examples of Turkish atrocities in Armenia, an article on the Dardanelles campaign talking of meeting an ex-brigand and having a picnic, Austrian “maniacs of murder” outraging A. Beaumont by bombing Verona, a “pretty girl of 17” being nicknamed the “Joan of Arc of the North” and awarded the Croix de Guerre for her killing of Germans at Loos and discover that the weather was seasonable for the “real start” of Christmas shopping. Page 10 is also worth a look. “No one can describe Baghdad nowadays; few and those are unwise ones, try” claims Perceval Landon, who goes on to do just that in writing about “the kernel of the east” in an article on this page, whilst Theodore Roosevelt gives his latest opinions on war, United States policy and diplomacy to a French journalist (page 10) and Philip Gibbs recounts the tale of two escaped Russian prisoners of war suddenly appearing in the British lines. An interesting and wide-ranging issue it is today. Also in today’s paper - A “rush of recruits at Scotland Yard” is reported creating a “curious condition of affairs” at Old Scotland Yard – page 7 - “A war munitions factory is the most inspiring sight in Britain” claims W. T. Massey as he continues his series on the topic on pages 9 and 10, writing today about patriotism at the lathe by women - Scarce and costly fruit could impact on Christmas puddings, reports an article on page 12  .

15th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph;As Selfridge’s in its customary full-page advert on page 13 notes, there are only 30 full shopping days to Christmas, and certainly there are a noticeable number of Christmas-related adverts through the paper today. Does this show a determination to keep the festival as much as possible despite the wartime conditions? Perhaps the oddest sounding one comes to page 5, where Robinson & Cleaver advertises its “great handkerchief week.” Yes, seriously. Also in today’s paper - The worst gale for 20 years hits the Irish Sea on page 5 - A Home Office advisory committee details means of getting women into clerical jobs so men can be freed to go and fight – page 6 - A leader on page 8 advocates the Allies taking a firm line with “wavering States and their monarchs” to persuade them who to back in the war - General Russky claims the Central Powers are no longer capable of springing “unpleasant ‘surprises’” upon his army – page 9 - More successes for the Allies in Serbia are reported on page 9 - The Berliner Tageblatt publishes an article which praises Lord Kitchener, so naturally the Telegraph considers this to be “one of the frankest and most clear-minded articles that have appeared in the Berlin Press” – page 9 - A Correspondent pays an “interesting visit” to H.M.A.S. Australia on page 10 whilst Archibald Hurd next to this article considers Germany’s sending to U-boats to the Mediterranean as an expression of her failure to successfully carry out “piracy” around the British Isles - Philip Gibbs sings the praises of the Royal Flying Corps – the “eyes of the army” – on page 10 - Methuen & Sons are ordered to destroy copies of D H. Lawrence’s novel The Rainbow by the courts after the novel is denounced as a “disgusting, detestable, and pernicious work” and “utter filth” – page 12  .

14th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 14th November 1915.

The translation is:

IN BRUSSELS

Good news falling from the sky



13th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph: No question what the major news was today, with the announcement that Winston Churchill has resigned from Government and intended to join his regiment at the Front. In the customary fashion of an exchange of letters between departing minister and Prime Minister Churchill expressed his feeling that with the concentration of power in a small War Council in which he was unable to play a part he was unable to remain in “well-paid inactivity.” Asquith for his part expressed regret at the decision. Page 9 carried the latters and an analysis of Churchill’s “meteoric career” to date, whilst a leader on page 8 considered that, although the news would be “received by the country with great respect and regret” that “a statesman of great ability and great ambition … felt it his duty to resign office” it was the right thing to do, as he was “much too vigorous and dominating a personality to be content with a sinecure, after played so prominent and powerful a part” in the management of the war to date. However, it would not be the last we would see of Churchill in this war… ADVERTISING  Also in today’s paper - A “curious case” is reported amongst the legal cases on page 4 involving a man of alleged German birth enlisting in the army and three women involved in his case - The latest American reports of conditions at German prisoner of war camps indicate an improvement in conditions – page 6 - “An extraordinary sensation” in France with the arrest of a “beautiful adventuress” on espionage charges – page 7 - Howard d’Egville surveys the state of compulsory military service in the Dominions on page 7 - The Russians report a victory in the region of Schlock and successes elsewhere on the front on page 9. Curiously the map accompanying the article doesn’t feature anywhere mentioned in it - More revelations of plots by the Central Powers in the United States on page 9 - An “extraordinarily orderly” retreat by the Serbs is reported in the latest news from that front on page 9 - Today’s letter of appeal is for the care of horses in war-time (page 10), along with clothing for invalid servicemen (page 13) - Publisher John Murray gives a talk on his recollections in that field to the Y.M.C.A., and reveals who Queen Victoria regarded as her greatest Prime Minister (page 10) - The women’s page speaks to lady bus conductors about their experiences, whilst the weekly recipes look at winter sweets, including such delights as the “tasty little dish” orange custard fritters – page 12 .


12th November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph: As to be expected more on the sinking of the Ancona was a major story of the day in terms of reportage (pages 9 and 10) but matters parliamentary were no less covered, with a number of articles on pages 9 and 10, as well as the usual lengthy verbatim reports across pages 6 and 7, the most notable of which was a “stern denunciation of an outrageous charge” as Herbert Asquith refutes allegations that Lord Kitchener had resigned in a “highly dramatic scene” in the Commons.
And the powers that be were far from popular in the licensed trade, as an article on page 11 makes it quite clear that it is unhappy with the regulations imposed upon it since the war began.
Also in today’s paper:
- Germans take time out from the war to debate whether handwriting should use gothic or roman characters – page 3
- The paper is still banging on about the lack of protecting the National Gallery is giving its treasures, with another article on page 5 on the matter, kindly giving dates of prior articles at the base. - The intended commander for Gallipoli, General C. C. Monro, is diverted to lead the British troops aiding the Serbs – page 9. Meanwhile there is excitement in Germany over the progress of the fighting there – page 10 - Young unmarried men are warned to enlist or face potential compulsion – page 9 - “Interesting particulars” of the fighting in Mesopotamia arrive in the mail from India – page 10 - The New York Times examines the German mind – page 11

11th November 1915




The first of the few lost his life on this day; Lieutenant Colonel J.D.B. Fulton became the first serving officer in HM Forces to obtain a Royal Aero Club certificate acknowledging hisability to fly an aircraft in 1910

The Italian passenger steamer SS Ancona was an Italian passenger steamer and was torpedoed and sunk without warning on 8th November 1915 by SM U-38, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Max Valentiner off Cape Carbonara. The U-boat was flying the flag of Austria-Hungary as the German Empire was not yet at war with Italy. Over 200 lives were lost including nineAmericans.


In todays' Daily Telegraph;  A retired German butcher is in court for beating a schoolboy after some of his fellows had attacked his house – page 4. The Government takes steps to meet the need for merchant shipping to carry foodstuffs and another necessities by putting controls on shipping between foreign ports and making provisions for requisitioning of ships – page 8 - Expectations as to the vote of credit (see November 4) prove underestimates, as the Government asks for £400 million, but not everyone is happy at its level of expenditure – page 9 - More conflicting news in what “scanty” information is emerging from Serbia, relegated today to page 10 - W. T. Massey reports from Sheffield on how the city’s industry is adapting to the country’s munition needs – page 10 - Tsar Nicholas II experiences what it is like to come under fire during a visit to the front – page 10



10th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph:The Lord Mayor’s Show in London and the following Guildhall Banquet seemed to excite the Telegraph the most today. Not only was there an entire column on page 9 on the show itself, but the paper thought the speeches made at the banquet so important that five columns over pages 9 and 10 was given over to coverage, as well as a leader on page 8. Readers could find out what Herbert Asquith, Sir John Simon, the French Ambassador, Arthur Balfour, the Lord Chief Justice and Sir F.E. Smith had to say at quite some length, even if their content was hardly anything they had not heard before during the war. Also in today’s paper - The President of the Swansea Metal Exchange has some condemnatory words to say about strikers on page 3 - Leonard Spray in Rotterdam reports on German’s Zeppelin construction policy on page 6, and perhaps not entirely coincidentally next to this comes a report from a Polish Correspondent about German attempts to get Poles working for them - A French newspaper reports that schoolchildren express indignation at the execution of Edith Cavell when they are taught it in their classes in the country – page 7 - The wartime tradition of poems in the paper continues on page 8 with one on “The Splendid Serb.” With “meagre” news on the fighting there on page 9 the main reporting comes from the previous week’s fighting at Monastir - A new scheme of air raid insurance is announced by the Postmaster-General on page 9 - The Military Correspondent calls for a General Staff on page 11 - The entries for the 1917 1,000 and 2,000 Guineas are lower than previous years, and thus used as an example of how the war is affecting horse breeding and racing on page 13


9th November 1915




The notable sinking of the SS. Californian occurred on this day. Embroiled in controversy surrounding her location and apparent lack of response to the distress signals during the sinking of the RMS Titanic on 15 April 1912.  The Californian, while being escorted by a French torpedo boat was torpedoed by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), and sank 61 miles SSW of Cape Matapan, Greece. Richard Harding a Fireman, Mercantile Marine was the sole loss of life.The lighthouse tender HMY IRENE  hit  a mine laid by the German submarine UC1 with the loss of all hands


In todays' Daily Telegraph:- An article on page 4 examines military demands for clothing, and reveals a khaki boom helped by a large order from Russia - A letter on page 4 expresses disapproval of the tactics of the evening newspapers to sell papers, claiming they are all too ready to print fabricated stories - An article on page 7 exhorts people to start their Christmas shopping as soon as possible. This will be “the most practical patriotism” according to a leader on page 8, which also examines how the war is leading to changing times in London - After an article about increased visitors to Cheltenham on October 30, it is the turn of Bath to be the subject of a similar article (page 7) - The possibility of shipping lines taking action to prevent men eligible for service from emigrating to try and escape it is floated on page 7 - More Allied success in Serbia is reported on page 9, with A. Beaumont in Milan able to provide a “graphic description” of the Battle of Strumitza by copying the article of an Italian journalist. Page 10 has more reports from the fighting there. - The House of Lords debate on the conduct of the war is praised for its quality in a report on page 9 - A German cruiser is sunk by a British submarine in the Baltic (page 9) and its presence there is given as an example of the panic the submarines are causing the German Admiralty - Philip Gibbs reports on some Oriental visitors at the British Front in his usual lyrical manner on page 10 - Claims reach Italy that the British have occupied Baghdad – page 10 - A child falls from a train but is remarkably practically unhurt – page 10 - An English gentleman recently resident in Athens gives an idea of attitudes in Greece to the war and the combatants – page 11 - The Chief Electrical and Mechanical Engineer of the Metropolitan Railway explains how its electric services work on page 12

8th November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph; - The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee now issues a leaflet in a form of a catechism for canvassers working on the Earl of Derby’s scheme – page 7
- A Serbian victory over Bulgaria in Macedonia, in which the country was assisted by British and French troops, is announced on page 9, which offsets the fall of its war capital
- The Government reiterates that Lord Kitchener has not resigned but is visiting the Eastern theatre or war – page 9, and a leader on page 8 has no truck with the rumour-mongers who have been saying otherwise
- As Greece gets a new Cabinet E. J. Dillon’s analysis of the situation in the country reveals that that their King, Constantine, is regarded there as the foremost military strategist in the world – page 9 - America sends a note to the Allied governments protesting over their blockade policies towards ships trading with Germany – pages 9 and 10 - Philip Gibbs feels able to write more on the Battle of Loos now Sir John French has published his official despatch on it – page 10 - Sarah Bernhardt returns to the Paris stage for the first time since her leg amputation – page 10

7th November 1915

Today’s pictorial paper is the French Sunday supplement La Petit Journal published on the 7th November 1915.


The translation is: 

A NATION OF HEROES

In Serbia, the women, the young, the old, struggle against the invader.

6th November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph;Straight to the digest, although there are some interesting items in today’s paper. - The Sunday Pictorial isn’t reticent by Horatio Bottomley’s latest article for the following day’s paper, proclaiming it to be “the most wonderful article ever written” in an advert on page 3 - The regulations creating a darker London at night forces Harrods to decide to close at 5pm each day, as announced in an advert on page 5. Londoners are also confronted with a further restriction of drinking hours (page 9) whilst another article reports on how West End theatres “are having anything but an easy time at present” (also page 9) - The latest inquest of a victim of a Zeppelin raid sees the coroner stressing the importance of taking cover and considering it ridiculous to enter a verdict of murder – page 6 - Officials deny Lord Kitchener has resigned but aver he is merely having a temporary absence and the Prime Minister is covering for him – page 9 - Whilst the reporting on the fighting in Serbia as usual tries to persuade readers that enemy claims are overinflated (page 9) over the page Cheddo Miyatovich analyses the situation and concludes “it is not yet hopeless” for his countrymen (page 10) - A steamship avoids “a new German method of attack on merchant vessels” in the North Sea – page 10 - Even by the standards of delayed articles during the war to have a Dardanelles despatch from Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett dated July 9 seems highly belated to be printing (page 11) - The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee issues posters detailing the main points of the Earl of Derby’s scheme “in furtherance of the new propaganda instituted” by him – page 11 - If you’ve ever fancied making Lentil soufflé, the women’s page has a recipe for you on page 12

5th November 1915














Two significant losses for the Royal Navy: The submarine HMS E20 Under the command of Lt-Cdr Clyfford Warren, with the loss of 21 of her crew and HMS Tare.

In todays' Daily Telegraph; Still the Balkans led the news, with the Greek Government losing a vote of confidence and the Bulgarian army advancing on Nish in Serbia, whilst the first British troops were reported to have reached the front there (all page 9), and an account from the Daily Chronicle’s reporter who had visited the Serb front line was reprinted on pages 9 and 10. Further afield advances by the British towards Baghdad were claimed by a sub-headline to be causing anxiety in Germany, although the report (page 10) seems as much to express confidence there that the Turks will hold it in the long run. Asides from this there was little of great note; excepting parliamentary reports and the rolls of honour/gallantry awards one of the longer articles in today’s paper concerned cooking apples! (page 13). The court case of the day was on page 14, where a café proprietress was fined for keeping a disorderly establishment due to waitresses kissing and cuddling the customers.

4th November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph; The ongoing situation in the Balkans still led the war reporting, but there was little else of great note to report at present on the other fronts; and the biggest news at home, aside from an improving George V, was the Government being expected to ask for a vote of credit of £250 million (page 9) on what was a relatively quiet day.
Also in today’s paper:
- “The success of the British Fleet is proving embarrassing. We have the seas at our command” claims Archibald Hurd in his latest naval analysis on page 8
- The Prime Minister and the Censor are among those criticised by peers in the House of Lords – page 9
- Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett recounts the tale of the sinking of HMS Majestic off the Dardanelles, and being on it at the time can give a “personal narrative” of what happened – page 11 - A plan to provide flats for servicemen disabled in the war and their families is outlined on page 13 

3rd November 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph;Two of the most senior men in Britain led the news today. Pride of place went to Herbert Asquith’s “speech of most unaccustomed length” as the Telegraph’s leader on page 8 put it, on the war’s progress in the commons, which was reported, alongside Sir Edward Carson's resignation speech and other members critical of the Government's handling on page 9 and reprinted for those brave enough to which to read it all in full on pages 5 and 6.
Rather more succinct was King George V, who sent an Special Order of the Day to his troops complimenting them, reprinted on page 9. Next to this can be found the “authorised version” of his accident whilst visiting them (even though it admitted it is “exactly as stated in the bulletins”) which appears to have been issued to discount gossip that it had been caused in a different manner to that reported.
Also in today’s paper
- Lord Kitchener is going to review the City National Guard, the description of which makes it sound like a precursor of Dad’s Army – page 8
- Another “practically obsolete” naval vessel goes to a watery grave, this time after colliding with a fleet auxiliary vessel – page 9 - Today’s Edith Cavell-related story: an American journalist in Paris makes clear that the shooting of two German women as spies in France since the war began cannot be equated to, or used to justify her execution (page 10), whilst her memorial fund has now topped the £2000 mark (page 11) - The letter the previous day over the banning of fiction lending from Wandsworth libraries triggers a debate on the issue from other correspondents on page 10

2nd Nvember 1915


In todays' Daily Telegraph;was a day of looking back today, with Sir John French’s despatch concerning the Battle of Loos on page 12 the major article, followed by Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett revisiting the naval side of the Dardanelles campaign on pages 9 and 10 (and there was another report from the Anzac troops there on page 11), whilst the sum raised by street collections on “Our Day” in London on October 21 was announced to have raised £32,000 (page 11). In the current situation more advances for the Central Powers in Serbia took second fiddle to a recovering King George V’s return from France (both page 9). Also in today’s paper
- If readers weren’t quite up to speed over the destroyed Tiepolo in Venice (see October 28) Sir Claude Phillips provides assistance on page 7
- The “chief conspirator in the judicial murder of Nurse Cavell,” whose policy in Belgium is described as one of “super-frightfulness and terrorism” leaves the country – page 9
- A reader laments in a letter on page 10 Wandsworth council banning the lending of fiction from its libraries for the duration of the war
- A letter on page 11 calls for better facilities to be arranged for soldiers detrained at London Victoria in the middle of the night

1st November 1915



In todays' Daily Telegraph; Just how bloody the Battle of Loos actually was can be seen by the rolls of honour in the Telegraph, which have been more steadily more regular and sizeable since it started, and with it taking up space on no fewer than four pages of today’s paper (pages 2, 3, 6 and 12) it it’s the most horrific so far in the newspaper. It makes you wonder just what its going to be like come next summer and the Battle of the Somme. This impression is borne out by the October casualty figures on page 8, which are markedly higher than the two previous months.
Also in today’s paper
- The annual conference of the London Teachers’ Association reveals that half of its male teachers have enlisted in some form – page 6
- Serbia appears to be taking a leaf out of Russia’s book by withdrawing from towns and cities before that are captured by the enemy – page 8
- “Rigid restrictions” are announced governing the permissibility of Guy Fawkes fireworks displays on page 8, although given there are only four days to go it seems a bit late in the day to start making them known, or is that the plan? - King George V’s medical condition is improving – page 9 - Lord Kitchener grants the distribution of khaki armlets to men willing to serve who are waiting their call-up, men willing to serve but who are medically unfit to do so and men invalided out with good character, a step welcomed by the Telegraph’s report as it should help stop people being misidentified as “shirkers” – page 9 - 155 men are missing after a British minesweeper collides with a fellow naval vessel off the Dardanelles – page 9 - Not for the first time the prison population figures show a “welcome” side-effect of the war in a fall, but they also fail to bear out the belief that drunkenness among women has increased since it started – page 11